This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grants AGS-1059611 and AGS-1144105, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant NNX10AH70G, and Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0001164/ER-64752 and DE-SC0008452. We are grateful to the NCAR science team for providing the quality-controlled radar data used in this study. S. Brodzik helped with software and data management. S. Powell provided the interpolated DOE/ARM sounding data. K. Rasmussen, H. Barnes, S. Powell, and three anonymous reviewers contributed helpful comments. Beth Tully provided graphics and editing support. ERA-Interim data used in this study were obtained from the ECMWF data server.
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