We thank the anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful suggestions and comments. J. Dias acknowledges the support by NRC Research Associate fellowship and P. L. Silva Dias acknowledges the support by CNPQ (INCT-Climate Change).
Back, L. E., , and C. S. Bretherton, 2006: Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett.,33, L17810, doi:10.1029/2006GL026672.
Benedict, J. J., , E. D. Maloney, , A. H. Sobel, , D. M. W. Frierson, , and L. J. Donner, 2013: Tropical intraseasonal variability in version 3 of the GFDL atmosphere model. J. Climate, 26, 426–449.
Dias, J., , and O. M. Pauluis, 2009: Convectively coupled waves propagating along an equatorial ITCZ. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2237–2255.
Dias, J., , and O. M. Pauluis, 2011: Modulations of the phase speed of convectively coupled Kelvin waves by the ITCZ. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1446–1459.
Emanuel, K. A., , J. D. Neelin, , and C. S. Bretherton, 1994: On large-scale circulations in convecting atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 1111–1143.
Frierson, D. M. W., , A. J. Majda, , and O. M. Pauluis, 2004: Large scale dynamics of precipitation fronts in the tropical atmosphere: A novel relaxation limit. Commun. Math. Sci., 2, 591–626.
Frierson, D. M. W., , D. Kim, , I.-S. Kang, , M.-I. Lee, , and J. Lin, 2011: Structure of AGCM-simulated convectively coupled Kelvin waves and sensitivity to convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 26–45.
Fulton, S. R., , and W. H. Schubert, 1985: Vertical normal mode transforms: Theory and application. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 647–658.
Gehne, M., , and R. Kleeman, 2012: Spectral analysis of tropical atmospheric dynamical variables using a linear shallow-water modal decomposition. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 2300–2316.
Hendon, H. H., , and M. C. Wheeler, 2008: Some space–time spectral analyses of tropical convection and planetary-scale waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2936–2948.
Hodges, K. I., , D. W. Chappell, , G. J. Robinson, , and G. Yang, 2000: An improved algorithm for generating global window brightness temperatures from multiple satellite infrared imagery. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 1296–1312.
Kasahara, A., , and P. L. da Silva Dias, 1986: Response of planetary waves to stationary tropical heating in a global atmosphere with meridional and vertical shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1893–1912.
Kato, T., 1995: Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators. Classics in Mathematics, Springer, 642 pp.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2006: A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part I: Linear analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1308–1323.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2008: Equatorial convectively coupled waves in a simple multicloud model. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3376–3397.
Kiladis, G. N., , and M. Wheeler, 1995: Horizontal and vertical structure of observed tropospheric equatorial Rossby waves. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 22 981–22 997.
Kiladis, G. N., , M. C. Wheeler, , P. T. Haertel, , K. H. Straub, , and P. E. Roundy, 2009: Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Rev. Geophys.,47, RG2003, doi:10.1029/2008RG000266.
Kuang, Z., 2010: Linear response functions of a cumulus ensemble to temperature and moisture perturbations and implication to the dynamics of convectively coupled waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 941–962.
Lin, J. L., , M. I. Lee, , D. Kim, , I. S. Kang, , and D. M. W. Frierson, 2008: The impacts of convective parameterization and moisture triggering on AGCM-simulated convectively coupled equatorial waves. J. Climate, 21, 883–909.
Majda, A. J., , and M. G. Shefter, 2001: Models for stratiform instability and convectively coupled waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2425–2436.
Mapes, B. E., 2000: Convective inhibition, subgrid-scale triggering energy, and stratiform instability in a toy tropical wave model. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 517–526.
Neelin, J. D., , and I. M. Held, 1987: Modeling tropical convergence based on the moist static energy budget. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 3–12.
Neelin, J. D., , and J.-Y. Yu, 1994: Modes of tropical variability under convective adjustment and the Madden-Julian oscillation. Part I: Analytical results. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 1876–1894.
Neelin, J. D., , I. M. Held, , and K. H. Cook, 1987: Evaporation-wind feedback and low frequency variability in the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 2341–2348.
Raymond, D. J., , and Z. Fuchs, 2007: Convectively coupled gravity and moisture modes in a simple atmospheric model. Tellus, 59A, 627–640.
Raymond, D. J., , S. L. Sessions, , A. H. Sobel, , and Z. Fuchs, 2009: The mechanics of gross moist stability. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst.,1, 9, doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.9.
Roundy, P. E., 2012: The spectrum of convectively coupled Kelvin waves and the Madden–Julian oscillation in regions of low-level easterly and westerly background flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 2107–2111.
Silva Dias, P. L., , W. H. Schubert, , and M. DeMaria, 1983: Large-scale response of the tropical atmosphere to transient convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2689–2707.
Straub, K. H., , and G. N. Kiladis, 2003: Interactions between the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation and higher-frequency tropical wave activity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 945–960.
Straub, K. H., , P. T. Haertel, , and G. N. Kiladis, 2010: An analysis of convectively coupled Kelvin waves in 20 WCRP CMIP3 global coupled climate models. J. Climate, 23, 3031–3056.
Takayabu, Y. N., 1994: Large-scale cloud disturbances associated with equatorial waves. Part I: Spectral features of the cloud disturbances. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 72, 433–449.
Tulich, S. N., , and B. E. Mapes, 2008: Multiscale convective wave disturbances in the tropics: Insights from a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 140–155.
Tulich, S. N., , and G. N. Kiladis, 2012: Squall lines and convectively coupled gravity waves in the tropics: Why do most cloud systems move westward? J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 2995–3012.
Tulich, S. N., , D. A. Randall, , and B. E. Mapes, 2007: Vertical-mode and cloud decomposition of large-scale convectively coupled gravity waves in a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1210–1229.
Wallace, J. M., , and L. A. Chang, 1972: On the application of satellite data on cloud brightness to the study of tropical wave disturbances. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1400–1403.
Wheeler, M. C., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 374–399.
Wheeler, M. C., , G. N. Kiladis, , and P. J. Webster, 2000: Large-scale dynamical fields associated with convectively coupled equatorial waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 613–640.
Yang, G.-Y., , B. Hoskins, , and J. Slingo, 2007a: Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Part I: Horizontal and vertical structures. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 3406–3423.
Yang, G.-Y., , B. Hoskins, , and J. Slingo, 2007b: Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Part II: Propagation characteristics. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 3424–3437.
Yasunaga, K., 2011: Seasonality and regionality of the Madden–Julian oscillation and convectively coupled equatorial waves. SOLA, 7, 153–156.
Yu, J.-Y., , C. Chou, , and J. D. Neelin, 1998: Estimating the gross moist stability of the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1354–1372.