This research is supported by NRL Base Program PE 0601153N. The author has greatly benefited from discussions with Drs. James Doyle at Naval Research Laboratory and Ronald Smith at Yale University. We want to thank three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. The simulations were made using the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) developed by U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.
Armi, L., and G. M. Mayr, 2011: The descending stratified flow and internal hydraulic jump in the lee of the Sierras. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 1995–2011.
Baines, P. G., 1995: Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows. Cambridge University Press, 482 pp.
Burk, S. D., T. Haack, and R. M. Samelson, 1999: Mesoscale simulation of supercritical, subcritical, and transcritical flow along coastal topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2780–2795.
Drobinski, P., C. Flamant, J. Dusek, P. H. Flamant, and J. Pelon, 2001: Observational evidence and modeling of an internal hydraulic jump at the atmospheric boundary layer top during a Tramontane event. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 98, 497–515.
Durran, D. R., 1986: Another look at downslope windstorms. Part I: The development of analogs to supercritical flow in an infinitely deep, continuously stratified fluid. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 2527–2543.
Durran, D. R., 2000: Small-amplitude coastally trapped disturbances and the reduced-gravity shallow-water approximation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 2671–2689.
Finnigan, T. D., J. A. Vine, P. L. Jackson, S. E. Allen, G. A. Lawrence, and D. G. Steyn, 1994: Hydraulic physical modeling and observations of a severe gap wind. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 2688–2687.
Gohm, A., G. J. Mayr, A. Fix, and A. Giez, 2008: On the onset of bora and the formation of rotors and jumps near a mountain gap. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 134, 21–46.
Guenard, V., P. Drobinski, J.-L. Caccia, B. Campistron, and B. Benech, 2005: An observational study of the mesoscale mistral dynamics. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 115, 263–288.
Hager, W. H., 1992: Energy Dissipators and Hydraulic Jump. Water Science and Technology Library Series, Vol. 8, Springer, 289 pp.
Hodur, R. M., 1997: The Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 1414–1430.
Jiang, Q., and J. D. Doyle, 2004: Gravity wave breaking over the central Alps: Role of complex terrain. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2249–2266.
Jiang, Q., and J. D. Doyle, 2005: Wave breaking induced surface wakes and jets observed during a bora event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17807, doi:10.1029/2005GL022398.
Jiang, Q., J. D. Doyle, S. Wang, and R. B. Smith, 2007: On boundary layer separation in the lee of mesoscale topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 401–420.
Jiang, Q., R. B. Smith, and J. D. Doyle, 2008: Impact of the atmospheric boundary layer on mountain waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 592–608.
Jiang, Q., S. Wang, and L. O’Neill, 2010: Some insights into the characteristics and dynamics of the Chilean low-level coastal jet. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 3185–3206.
Kuettner, J. P., 1959: The rotor flow in the lee of mountains. GRD Research Note 6, AFCRC-TN-58-626, ASTIA Doc. AD-208862, 20 pp.
Long, R. R., 1972: Finite amplitude disturbances in the flow of inviscid rotating and stratified fluids over obstacles. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 4, 69–92.
Marić, T., and D. R. Durran, 2009: Observations of gap flow in the Wipp Valley on 20 October 1999: Evidence of subsidence. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 984–1001.
Mayr, G. J., and Coauthors, 2007: Gap flows: Results from the Mesoscale Alpine Programme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 881–896.
Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1974: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1791–1806.
Prandtl, L., 1942: Führer durch die Strömungslehre. Braunschweig, Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, 382 pp.
Princevac, M., J. C. R. Hunt, and H. J. S. Fernando, 2008: Quasi-steady katabatic winds on slopes in wide valleys: Hydraulic theory and observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 627–643.
Pullen, J., J. D. Doyle, and R. P. Signell, 2006: Two-way air–sea coupling: A study of the Adriatic. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1465–1483.
Schaer, C., and R. B. Smith, 1993a: Shallow-water flow past isolated topography. Part I: Vorticity production and wake formation. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1373–1400.
Schaer, C., and R. B. Smith, 1993b: Shallow-water flow past an isolated topography. Part II: Transition to vortex shedding. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1401–1412.
Smith, R. B., and J. Sun, 1987: Generalized hydraulic solutions pertaining to severe downslope winds. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 2934–2939.
Smith, R. B., Q. Jiang, and J. D. Doyle, 2006: A theory of gravity wave absorption by boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 774–781.
COAMPS is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.