Global Climate

M. Ades 5 , R. Adler 6 , Rob Allan 7 , R. P. Allan 8 , J. Anderson 9 , Anthony Argüez 10 , C. Arosio 11 , J. A. Augustine 12 , C. Azorin-Molina 13 , J. Barichivich 14 , J. Barnes 15 , H. E. Beck 16 , Andreas Becker 17 , Nicolas Bellouin 18 , Angela Benedetti 19 , David I. Berry 20 , Stephen Blenkinsop 21 , Olivier. Bock 22 , Michael G. Bosilovich 23 , Olivier. Boucher 24 , S. A. Buehler 25 , Laura. Carrea 26 , Hanne H. Christiansen 27 , F. Chouza 28 , John R. Christy 29 , E.-S. Chung 30 , Melanie Coldewey-Egbers 31 , Gil P. Compo 32 , Owen R. Cooper 33 , Curt Covey 34 , A. Crotwell 35 , Sean M. Davis 36 , Elvira de Eyto 37 , Richard A. M de Jeu 38 , B.V. VanderSat 38 , Curtis L. DeGasperi 39 , Doug Degenstein 40 , Larry Di Girolamo 41 , Martin T. Dokulil 42 , Markus G. Donat 43 , Wouter A. Dorigo 44 , Imke Durre 45 , Geoff S. Dutton 46 , G. Duveiller 47 , James W. Elkins 48 , Vitali E. Fioletov 49 , Johannes Flemming 50 , Michael J. Foster 51 , Richard A. Frey 52 , Stacey M. Frith 53 , Lucien Froidevaux 54 , J. Garforth 55 , S. K. Gupta 56 , Leopold Haimberger 57 , Brad D. Hall 58 , Ian Harris 59 , Andrew K Heidinger 60 , D. L. Hemming 61 , Shu-peng (Ben) Ho 62 , Daan Hubert 63 , Dale F. Hurst 64 , I. Hüser 65 , Antje Inness 66 , K. Isaksen 67 , Viju John 68 , Philip D. Jones 69 , J. W. Kaiser 70 , S. Kelly 71 , S. Khaykin 72 , R. Kidd 73 , Hyungiun Kim 74 , Z. Kipling 75 , B. M. Kraemer 76 , D. P. Kratz 77 , R. S. La Fuente 78 , Xin Lan 79 , Kathleen O. Lantz 80 , T. Leblanc 81 , Bailing Li 82 , Norman G Loeb 83 , Craig S. Long 84 , Diego Loyola 85 , Wlodzimierz Marszelewski 86 , B. Martens 87 , Linda May 88 , Michael Mayer 89 , M. F. McCabe 90 , Tim R. McVicar 91 , Carl A. Mears 92 , W. Paul Menzel 93 , Christopher J. Merchant 94 , Ben R. Miller 95 , Diego G. Miralles 96 , Stephen A. Montzka 97 , Colin Morice 98 , Jens Mühle 99 , R. Myneni 100 , Julien P. Nicolas 101 , Jeannette Noetzli 102 , Tim J. Osborn 103 , T. Park 104 , A. Pasik 105 , Andrew M. Paterson 106 , Mauri S. Pelto 107 , S. Perkins-Kirkpatrick 108 , G. Pétron 109 , C. Phillips 110 , Bernard Pinty 111 , S. Po-Chedley 112 , L. Polvani 113 , W. Preimesberger 114 , M. Pulkkanen 115 , W. J. Randel 116 , Samuel Rémy 117 , L. Ricciardulli 118 , A. D. Richardson 119 , L. Rieger 120 , David A. Robinson 121 , Matthew Rodell 122 , Karen H. Rosenlof 123 , Chris Roth 124 , A. Rozanov 125 , James A. Rusak 126 , O. Rusanovskaya 127 , T. Rutishäuser 128 , Ahira Sánchez-Lugo 129 , P. Sawaengphokhai 130 , T. Scanlon 131 , Verena Schenzinger 132 , S. Geoffey Schladow 133 , R. W Schlegel 134 , Eawag Schmid, Martin 135 , H. B. Selkirk 136 , S. Sharma 137 , Lei Shi 138 , S. V. Shimaraeva 139 , E. A. Silow 140 , Adrian J. Simmons 141 , C. A. Smith 142 , Sharon L Smith 143 , B. J. Soden 144 , Viktoria Sofieva 145 , T. H. Sparks 146 , Paul W. Stackhouse Jr. 147 , Wolfgang Steinbrecht 148 , Dimitri A. Streletskiy 149 , G. Taha 150 , Hagen Telg 151 , S. J. Thackeray 152 , M. A. Timofeyev 153 , Kleareti Tourpali 154 , Mari R. Tye 155 , Ronald J. van der A 156 , Robin, VanderSat B.V. van der Schalie 157 , Gerard van der SchrierW. Paul 158 , Guido R. van der Werf 159 , Piet Verburg 160 , Jean-Paul Vernier 161 , Holger Vömel 162 , Russell S. Vose 163 , Ray Wang 164 , Shohei G. Watanabe 165 , Mark Weber 166 , Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer 167 , David Wiese 168 , Anne C. Wilber 169 , Jeanette D. Wild 170 , Takmeng Wong 171 , R. Iestyn Woolway 172 , Xungang Yin 173 , Lin Zhao 174 , Guanguo Zhao 175 , Xinjia Zhou 176 , Jerry R. Ziemke 177 , and Markus Ziese 178
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  • 1 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 2 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 3 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
  • 4 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 5 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 6 University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • 7 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 8 University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 9 Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia
  • 10 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • 11 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 12 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 13 Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación – Spanish National Research Council, Moncada (Valencia), Spain; and Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 14 Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
  • 15 NOAA/OAR ESRL Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • 16 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
  • 17 Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
  • 18 University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 19 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 20 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
  • 21 School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom
  • 22 Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, CNRS, IGN, Paris, France, and ENSG-Géomatique, IGN, Marne-la-Vallée, France
  • 23 Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • 24 Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
  • 25 Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 26 Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 27 Geology Department, University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway
  • 28 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Wrightwood, California
  • 29 The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama
  • 30 IBS Center for Climate Physics, Busan, South Korea
  • 31 German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany
  • 32 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and Physical Sciences Division, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • 33 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 34 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California
  • 35 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, and NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Division, Boulder, Colorado
  • 36 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • 37 Marine Institute, Furnace, Newport, Ireland
  • 38 Haarlem, the Netherlands
  • 39 King County Water and Land Resources Division, Seattle, Washington
  • 40 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 41 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois
  • 42 Research Department for Limnology, University of Innsbruck, Austria
  • 43 Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, Barcelona, Spain
  • 44 Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien - Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • 45 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • 46 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 47 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
  • 48 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 49 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • 50 European Centre for Medum-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 51 Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 52 Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 53 Science Systems and Applications, Inc, Lanham, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • 54 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
  • 55 Woodland Trust, Grantham, United Kingdom
  • 56 Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, Virginia
  • 57 Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 58 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 59 National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom and Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • 60 NOAA/NESDIS/STAR University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 61 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; Birmingham Institute of Forest Research, Birmingham University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • 62 NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research, College Park, Maryland
  • 63 Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA), Brussels, Belgium
  • 64 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 65 Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
  • 66 European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 67 Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Blindern, Oslo, Norway
  • 68 EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany
  • 69 Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • 70 Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
  • 71 Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dundalk, Ireland
  • 72 LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Guyancourt, France
  • 73 Earth Observation Data Centre GmbH, Vienna, Austria
  • 74 Institite of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 75 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 76 IGB Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
  • 77 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • 78 Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dundalk, Ireland
  • 79 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 80 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratory, and Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
  • 81 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Wrightwood, California
  • 82 Hydrological Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • 83 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • 84 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, College Park, Maryland
  • 85 German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany
  • 86 Department of Hydrology and Water Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
  • 87 Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab (H-CEL), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  • 88 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  • 89 Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Austria; European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 90 Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
  • 91 CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 92 Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, California
  • 93 Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 94 Department of Meteorology, and National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 95 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 96 Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab (H-CEL), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  • 97 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 98 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 99 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
  • 100 Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 101 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 102 WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos-Dorf, Switzerland
  • 103 Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • 104 NASA Ames Research Center, and Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, Moffett Field, California
  • 105 Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien - Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • 106 Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Dorset, Ontario, Canada
  • 107 Nichols College, Dudley, Massachusetts
  • 108 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • 109 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, and NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • 110 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 111 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
  • 112 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California
  • 113 Columbia University, New York, New York
  • 114 Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien - Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • 115 Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Freshwater Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
  • 116 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • 117 Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS / UPMC, Paris, France
  • 118 Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, California
  • 119 School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems and Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona
  • 120 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
  • 121 Department of Geography, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey
  • 122 Hydrological Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • 123 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 124 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 125 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 126 Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Dorset, Ontario, Canada
  • 127 Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, Russia
  • 128 Institute of Geography and Oeschger Center, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
  • 129 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • 130 Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, Virginia
  • 131 Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien - Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • 132 Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Austria
  • 133 Tahoe Environmental Research Center, University of California at Davis, Davis, California
  • 134 Physical Oceanography Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  • 135 Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland
  • 136 Universities Space Research Association, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • 137 York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 138 NOAA/NESDIS, National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • 139 Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, Russia
  • 140 Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, Russia
  • 141 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 142 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and Physical Sciences Laboratory, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado
  • 143 Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 144 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Key Biscayne, Florida
  • 145 Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland
  • 146 Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
  • 147 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • 148 German Weather Service (DWD), Hohenpeissenberg, Germany
  • 149 Department of Geography George Washington University, Washington D.C.
  • 150 GESTAR, Columbia, Maryland
  • 151 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratories and Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado
  • 152 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • 153 Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, Russia
  • 154 Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 155 Capacity Center for Climate and Weather Extremes (C3WE), National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • 156 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, Netherlands
  • 157 Haarlem, Netherlands
  • 158 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, Netherlands
  • 159 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • 160 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand
  • 161 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • 162 Earth Observing Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • 163 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • 164 Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
  • 165 Tahoe Environmental Research Center, University of California at Davis, Davis, California
  • 166 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 167 Department of Ecology and Genetics/Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 168 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
  • 169 Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, Virginia
  • 170 NOAA Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland; ESSIC/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • 171 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • 172 Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dundalk, Ireland
  • 173 ERT Inc., NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • 174 School of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, China
  • 175 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois
  • 176 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NOAA, College Park, Maryland
  • 177 Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • 178 Global Precipitation Climatology Center, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany
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Corresponding author: Robert Dunn / robert.dunn@metoffice.gov.uk

Corresponding author: Robert Dunn / robert.dunn@metoffice.gov.uk
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