Regional Climates

Peter Bissolli1, Catherine Ganter2, Tim Li3, Ademe Mekonnen4, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo5, Eric J. Alfaro6, Lincoln M. Alves7, Jorge A. Amador8, B. Andrade9, Francisco Argeñalso1, P. Asgarzadeh11, Julian Baez12, Reuben Barakiza13, M. Yu. Bardin14, Mikhail Bardin15, Oliver Bochníček16, Brandon Bukunt17, Blanca Calderón18, Jayaka D. Campbell19, Elise Chandler20, Ladislaus Chang’a21, Vincent Y. S. Cheng22, Leonardo A. Clarke23, Kris Correa24, Catalina Cortés25, Felipe Costa26, A.P.M.A. Cunha27, Mesut Demircan28, K. R. Dhurmea29, A. Diawara30, Sarah Diouf31, Dashkhuu Dulamsuren32, M. ElKharrim33, Jhan-Carlo Espinoza34, A. Fazl-Kazem35, Chris Fenimore36, Steven Fuhrman37, Karin Gleason38, Charles “Chip” P. Guard39, Samson Hagos40, Mizuki Hanafusa41, H. R. Hasannezhad42, Richard R. Heim Jr.43, Hugo G. Hidalgo44, J. A. Ijampy45, Gyo Soon Im46, Annie C. Joseph47, G. Jumaux48, K. R. Kabidi49, P-H. Kamsu-Tamo50, John Kennedy51, Valentina Khan52, Mai Van Khiem53, Philemon King’uza54, Natalia N. Korshunova55, A. C. Kruger56, Hoang Phuc Lam57, Mark A. Lander58, Waldo Lavado-Casimiro59, Tsz-Cheung Lee60, Kinson H. Y. Leung61, Gregor Macara62, Jostein Mamen63, José A. Marengo64, Charlotte McBride65, Noelia Misevicius66, Aurel Moise67, Jorge Molina-Carpio68, Natali Mora69, Awatif E. Mostafa70, Habiba Mtongori71, Charles Mutai72, O. Ndiaye73, Juan José Nieto74, Latifa Nyembo75, Patricia Nying’uro76, Xiao Pan77, Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez78, David Phillips79, Brad Pugh80, Madhavan Rajeevan81, M. L. Rakotonirina82, Andrea M. Ramos83, M. Robjhon84, Camino Rodriguez85, Guisado Rodriguez86, Josyane Ronchail87, Benjamin Rösner88, Roberto Salinas89, Hirotaka Sato90, Hitoshi Sato91, Amal Sayouri92, Joseph Sebaziga93, Serhat Sensoy94, Sandra Spillane95, Katja Trachte96, Gerard van der Schrier97, F. Sima98, Adam Smith99, Jacqueline M. Spence100, O. P. Sreejith101, A. K. Srivastava102, José L. Stella103, Kimberly A. Stephenson104, Tannecia S. Stephenson105, S. Supari106, Sahar Tajbakhsh-Mosalman107, Gerard Tamar108, Michael A. Taylor109, Asaminew Teshome110, Wassila M. Thiaw1, Skie Tobin112, Adrian R. Trotman113, Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck114, A. Vazifeh115, Shunya Wakamatsu116, Wei Wang117, Fei Xin118, F. Zeng119, Peiqun Zhang120, and Zhiwei Zhu121
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  • 1 Deutscher Wetterdienst, WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre Network, Offenbach, Germany
  • | 2 Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • | 3 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
  • | 4 Department of Physics, North Carolina A & T University, Greensboro, North Carolina
  • | 5 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 6 Center for Geophysical Research and School of Physics, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • | 7 Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • | 8 Center for Geophysical Research and School of Physics, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • | 9 Seychelles Meteorological Authority, Mahe, Seychelles
  • | 10 Centro Nacional de Estudios Atmosféricos, Oceanográficos y Sísmicos, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • | 11 National Center for Climate and Drought Crisis Management, Islamic Republic of Iranian Meteorological Organization, Iran
  • | 12 Universidad Católica Nuestra Senora de la Asunción, Asunción, Paraguay
  • | 13 Burundi Hydrometeorological Department, Bujumbura, Burundi
  • | 14 Yu. A. Izrael Institute of Global Climate and Ecology; Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
  • | 15 Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow, Russia
  • | 16 Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Slovakia
  • | 17 NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Office, Guam
  • | 18 Center for Geophysical Research, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • | 19 Department of Physics, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica
  • | 20 Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • | 21 Tanzania Meteorological Authority, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • | 22 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • | 23 Department of Physics, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica
  • | 24 Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú, Lima, Perú
  • | 25 Dirección de Meteorológica de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile
  • | 26 International Centre for Research on El Niño, Guayaqui, Ecuador
  • | 27 Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais CEMADEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • | 28 Turkish State Meteorological Service, Ankara, Turkey
  • | 29 Mauritius Meteorological Service, Vacoas, Mauritius
  • | 30 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 31 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 32 Climate change and resource research section, Information and Research, Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Environment, National Agency for Meteorology, Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  • | 33 Direction de la Météorologie Nationale Maroc, Rabat, Morocco
  • | 34 Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut des Géosciences de l’Environnement, IRD, CNRS, Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France
  • | 35 National Center for Drought Monitoring and Crisis Management, Islamic Republic of Iranian Meteorological Organization, Iran
  • | 36 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 37 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 38 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 39 Tropical Weather Sciences, Sinajana, Guam
  • | 40 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Richland, Washington
  • | 41 Tokyo Climate Center, Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan
  • | 42 National Center for Climate and Drought Crisis Management, Islamic Republic of Iranian Meteorological Organization, Iran
  • | 43 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 44 Center for Geophysical Research and School of Physics, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • | 45 Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Abuja, Nigeria
  • | 46 Climate Change Monitoring Division, Korea Meteorological Administration, South Korea
  • | 47 Dominica Meteorological Service, Canefield, Dominica
  • | 48 Météo France, Direction Interrégionale pour l’Océan Indien, Réunion
  • | 49 Direction de la Météorologie Nationale Maroc, Rabat, Morocco
  • | 50 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 51 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 52 Hydrometeorological Research Center of the Russian Federation/A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • | 53 Viet Nam National Center of Hydro-Meteorology Forecasting, Viet Nam Meteorology Hydrology Administration, Viet Nam
  • | 54 Tanzania Meteorological Authority, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • | 55 All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Center, Obninsk, Russia
  • | 56 Climate Service, South African Weather Service, Pretoria, South Africa Lakatos, Mónika, Climatology Unit, Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest, Hungary
  • | 57 Viet Nam National Center of Hydro-Meteorology Forecasting, Viet Nam Meteorology Hydrology Administration, Viet Nam
  • | 58 University of Guam, Mangilao, Guam
  • | 59 Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú, Lima, Perú
  • | 60 Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong, China
  • | 61 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • | 62 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand
  • | 63 Climate Division, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
  • | 64 Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais CEMADEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • | 65 Climate Service, South African Weather Service, Pretoria, South Africa
  • | 66 Instituto Uruguayo de Meteorología, Montevideo, Uruguay
  • | 67 Centre for Climate Research Singapore, Meteorological Service, Singapore
  • | 68 Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia
  • | 69 Center for Geophysical Research, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica
  • | 70 Department of Seasonal Forecast and Climate Research, Cairo Numerical Weather Prediction, Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo, Egypt
  • | 71 Tanzania Meteorological Authority, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • | 72 Kenya Meteorological Department, Nairobi, Kenya
  • | 73 Senegalese Meteorological Service, Dakar, Senegal
  • | 74 International Centre for Research on El Niño, Guayaqui, Ecuador
  • | 75 Tanzania Meteorological Authority, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • | 76 Kenya Meteorological Department, Nairobi, Kenya
  • | 77 Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China
  • | 78 National Meteorological Service of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
  • | 79 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • | 80 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 81 Earth System Science Organization, Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi, India
  • | 82 Madagascar Meteorological Service, Madagascar
  • | 83 Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, Brasilia, Brazil
  • | 84 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 85 Ernesto, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Madrid, Spain
  • | 86 Esteban, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Madrid, Spain
  • | 87 Laboratoire LOCEAN-IPSL, Paris, France
  • | 88 Laboratory for Climatology and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geography, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
  • | 89 Dirección de Meteorología e Hidrología/Dirección Nacional de Aeronáutica Civil, Asunción, Paraguay
  • | 90 Tokyo Climate Center, Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan
  • | 91 Tokyo Climate Center, Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan
  • | 92 Direction de la Météorologie Nationale Maroc, Rabat, Morocco
  • | 93 Rwanda Meteorology Agency, Kigali, Rwanda
  • | 94 Turkish State Meteorological Service, Ankara, Turkey
  • | 95 Met Éireann, Dublin, Ireland
  • | 96 Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany
  • | 97 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, Netherlands
  • | 98 Division of Meteorology, Department of Water Resources, Banjul, The Gambia
  • | 99 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 100 Meteorological Service, Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica
  • | 101 India Meteorological Department, Pune, India
  • | 102 India Meteorological Department, Pune, India
  • | 103 Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • | 104 Department of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica
  • | 105 Department of Physics, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica
  • | 106 Division for Climate Variability Analysis, Center for Climate Change Information, BMKG, Indonesia
  • | 107 Islamic Republic of Iranian Meteorological Organization, Iran
  • | 108 Grenada Meteorological Office, St. George, Grenada
  • | 109 Department of Physics, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica
  • | 110 Ethiopia Meteorological Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  • | 111 NOAA/NWS National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 112 Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • | 113 Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, Bridgetown, Barbados
  • | 114 Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, Bridgetown, Barbados
  • | 115 National Center for Drought Monitoring and Crisis Management, Islamic Republic of Iranian Meteorological Organization, Iran
  • | 116 Tokyo Climate Center, Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan
  • | 117 Minhang Meteorological Bureau, Shanghai, China
  • | 118 Shanghai Climate Center, Shanghai, China
  • | 119 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Richland, Washington
  • | 120 Beijing Climate Center, Beijing, China
  • | 121 Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China
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Corresponding authors: North America: Ahira Sánchez-Lugo / Ahira.Sanchez-Lugo@noaa.gov. Central America and the Caribbean: Ahira Sánchez-Lugo / Ahira.Sanchez-Lugo@noaa.gov, South America: Ahira Sánchez-Lugo / Ahira.Sanchez-Lugo@noaa.gov, Africa: Ademe Mekonnen / amekonne@ncat.edu, Europe: Peter Bissolli / Peter.Bissolli@dwd.de, Asia: Tim Li / timli@hawaii.edu, Oceania: Catherine Ganter / Catherine.Ganter@bom.gov.au

Corresponding authors: North America: Ahira Sánchez-Lugo / Ahira.Sanchez-Lugo@noaa.gov. Central America and the Caribbean: Ahira Sánchez-Lugo / Ahira.Sanchez-Lugo@noaa.gov, South America: Ahira Sánchez-Lugo / Ahira.Sanchez-Lugo@noaa.gov, Africa: Ademe Mekonnen / amekonne@ncat.edu, Europe: Peter Bissolli / Peter.Bissolli@dwd.de, Asia: Tim Li / timli@hawaii.edu, Oceania: Catherine Ganter / Catherine.Ganter@bom.gov.au
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