Global Climate

Robert J. H. Dunn1, F. Aldred2, Nadine Gobron3, John B. Miller4, Kate M. Willett5, M. Ades6, Robert Adler7, Richard, P. Allan8, Rob Allan9, J. Anderson10, Anthony Argüez11, C. Arosio12, John A. Augustine13, C. Azorin-Molina14, J. Barichivich15, H. E. Beck16, Andreas Becker17, Nicolas Bellouin18, Angela Benedetti19, David I. Berry20, Stephen Blenkinsop21, Olivier Bock22, X. Bodin23, Michael G. Bosilovich24, Olivier Boucher25, S. A. Buehler26, B. Calmettes27, Laura Carrea28, Laura Castia29, Hanne H. Christiansen30, John R. Christy31, E.-S. Chung32, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers33, Owen R. Cooper34, Richard C. Cornes35, Curt Covey36, J.-F. Cretaux37, M. Crotwell38, Sean M. Davis39, Richard A. M. de Jeu40, Doug Degenstein41, R. Delaloye42, Larry Di Girolamo43, Markus G. Donat44, Wouter A. Dorigo45, Imke Durre46, Geoff S. Dutton47, Gregory Duveiller48, James W. Elkins49, Vitali E. Fioletov50, Johannes Flemming51, Michael J. Foster52, Stacey M. Frith53, Lucien Froidevaux54, J. Garforth55, Matthew Gentry56, S. K. Gupta57, S. Hahn58, Leopold Haimberger59, Brad D. Hall60, Ian Harris61, D. L. Hemming62, M. Hirschi63, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho64, F. Hrbacek65, Daan Hubert66, Dale F. Hurst67, Antje Inness68, K. Isaksen69, Viju O. John70, Philip D. Jones71, Robert Junod72, J. W. Kaiser73, V. Kaufmann74, A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer75, Elizabeth C. Kent76, R. Kidd77, Hyungjun Kim78, Z. Kipling79, A. Koppa80, B. M. Kraemer81, D. P. Kratz82, Xin Lan83, Kathleen O. Lantz84, D. Lavers85, Norman G. Loeb86, Diego Loyola87, R. Madelon88, Michael Mayer89, M. F. McCabe90, Tim R. McVicar91, Carl A. Mears92, Christopher J. Merchant93, Diego G. Miralles94, L. Moesinger95, Stephen A. Montzka96, Colin Morice97, L. Mösinger98, Jens Mühle99, Julien P. Nicolas100, Jeannette Noetzli101, Ben Noll102, J. O’Keefe103, Tim J. Osborn104, T. Park105, A. J. Pasik106, C. Pellet107, Maury S. Pelto108, S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick109, G. Petron110, Coda Phillips111, S. Po-Chedley112, L. Polvani113, W. Preimesberger114, D. G. Rains115, W. J. Randel116, Nick A. Rayner117, Samuel Rémy118, L. Ricciardulli119, A. D. Richardson120, David A. Robinson121, Matthew Rodell122, N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández123, K.H. Rosenlof124, C. Roth125, A. Rozanov126, T. Rutishäuser127, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo128, P. Sawaengphokhai129, T. Scanlon130, Verena Schenzinger131, R. W. Schlegel132, S. Sharma133, Lei Shi134, Adrian J. Simmons135, Carolina Siso136, Sharon L. Smith137, B. J. Soden138, Viktoria Sofieva139, T. H. Sparks140, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.141, Wolfgang Steinbrecht142, Martin Stengel143, Dimitri A. Streletskiy144, Sunny Sun-Mack145, P. Tans146, S. J. Thackeray147, E. Thibert148, D. Tokuda149, Kleareti Tourpali150, Mari R. Tye151, Ronald van der A152, Robin van der Schalie153, Gerard van der Schrier154, M. van der Vliet155, Guido R. van der Werf156, A. Vance157, Jean-Paul Vernier158, Isaac J. Vimont159, Holger Vömel160, Russell S. Vose161, Ray Wang162, Markus Weber163, David Wiese164, Anne C. Wilber165, Jeanette D. Wild166, Takmeng Wong167, R. Iestyn Woolway168, Xinjia Zhou169, Xungang Yin170, Guangyu Zhao171, Lin Zhao172, Jerry R. Ziemke173, Markus Ziese174, and R. M. Zotta175
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  • 1 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 2 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 3 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
  • | 4 NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado,
  • | 5 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 6 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 7 CMNS-Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • | 8 Department of Meteorology and National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 9 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 10 Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia
  • | 11 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 12 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • | 13 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 14 Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación – Spanish National Research Council, Moncada (Valencia), Spain; and Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • | 15 Instituto de Geografía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
  • | 16 GloH2O, Almere, the Netherlands
  • | 17 Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
  • | 18 University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 19 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 20 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
  • | 21 School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom
  • | 22 Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, CNRS, IGN, F-7500 Paris, France
  • | 23 Laboratoire EDYTEM, CNRS/Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France
  • | 24 Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 25 Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
  • | 26 Meteorologisches Institut, Centrum für Erdsystem-und Nachhaltigkeitsforschung (CEN), Fachbereich Erdsystemwissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • | 27 Collecte Localisation Satellites (CLS), Ramonville Saint-Agne, France
  • | 28 Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 29 NOAA Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland
  • | 30 Geology Department, University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway
  • | 31 The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama
  • | 32 Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea
  • | 33 DLR (German Aerospace Center) Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany
  • | 34 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 35 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
  • | 36 Lawrence Livermore, National Laboratory, Livermore California
  • | 37 CNES/LEGOS, UMR5566, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France
  • | 38 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 39 NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 40 VanderSat B.V., Haarlem, The Netherlands
  • | 41 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • | 42 Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
  • | 43 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois
  • | 44 Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, Barcelona, Spain
  • | 45 TU Wien - Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 46 NOAA/NESDIS, National Center for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 47 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 48 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy; currently at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany
  • | 49 NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 50 Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada
  • | 51 Copernicus Department, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 52 Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • | 53 Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 54 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
  • | 55 Woodland Trust, Grantham, United Kingdom
  • | 56 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 57 Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI), Hampton, Virginia
  • | 58 TU Wien - Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 59 Department of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • | 60 NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 61 National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • | 62 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom; Birmingham Institute of Forest Research, Birmingham University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • | 63 ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • | 64 Center for Satellite Applications and Research, NOAA, College Park, Maryland
  • | 65 Department of Geography, Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia
  • | 66 Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), Brussels, Belgium
  • | 67 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 68 Copernicus Department, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 69 Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
  • | 70 EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany
  • | 71 Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • | 72 Earth System Science Center (ESSC), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama
  • | 73 Satellite-based Climate Monitoring Unit, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany
  • | 74 Institute of Geodesy, Working Group Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
  • | 75 Institute of Geography and Regional Science, Cascade - The Mountain Processes and Mountain Hazards Group, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
  • | 76 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
  • | 77 Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), Vienna, Austria
  • | 78 Moon Soul Graduate School of Future Strategy, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 79 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 80 Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab (H-CEL), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  • | 81 IGB Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
  • | 82 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • | 83 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 84 NOAA/OAR Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 85 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 86 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • | 87 DLR (German Aerospace Center) Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany
  • | 88 CESBIO (Université Toulouse 3, CNES, CNRS, INRAE, IRD), Toulouse, France
  • | 89 University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 90 Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
  • | 91 CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • | 92 Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, California
  • | 93 Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 94 Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab (H-CEL), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  • | 95 TU Wien – University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 96 NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 97 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 98 TU Wien – University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 99 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
  • | 100 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 101 WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos-Dorf, Switzerland
  • | 102 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand
  • | 103 The Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, Massachusetts
  • | 104 Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • | 105 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California; Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, Moffett Field, California
  • | 106 TU Wien – Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 107 Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
  • | 108 Nichols College, Dudley, Massachusetts
  • | 109 University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia
  • | 110 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado; NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 111 Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • | 112 Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California
  • | 113 Columbia University, New York, New York
  • | 114 TU Wien – Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 115 Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab (H-CEL), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  • | 116 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 117 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 118 HYGEOS, Lille, France
  • | 119 Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, California
  • | 120 School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems and Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona
  • | 121 Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey
  • | 122 Hydrological Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 123 CESBIO (Université Toulouse 3, CNES, CNRS, INRAE, IRD), Toulouse, France
  • | 124 NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 125 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
  • | 126 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • | 127 Institute of Geography and Oeschger Center, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
  • | 128 NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 129 Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI), Hampton, Virginia
  • | 130 TU Wien – University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
  • | 131 Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
  • | 132 Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Villefranche-sur-mer, France
  • | 133 York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • | 134 NOAA/NESDIS, National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina, United States
  • | 135 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 136 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA, and NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 137 Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada
  • | 138 University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), Key Biscayne, Florida, United States
  • | 139 Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland
  • | 140 Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
  • | 141 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • | 142 German Weather Service (DWD), Hohenpeissenberg, Germany
  • | 143 Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany
  • | 144 George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
  • | 145 Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI), Hampton, Virginia
  • | 146 NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 147 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • | 148 Université Grenoble Alpes, INRAE, UR ETGR, Grenoble, France
  • | 149 Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • | 150 Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • | 151 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 152 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), DeBilt, The Netherlands
  • | 153 VanderSat B.V., Haarlem, The Netherlands
  • | 154 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands
  • | 155 VanderSat B.V., Haarlem, The Netherlands
  • | 156 Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • | 157 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • | 158 National Institute of Aerospace/NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • | 159 Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, and NOAA/OAR Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 160 Earth Observing Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 161 NOAA/NESDIS, National Center for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 162 Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
  • | 163 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • | 164 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California
  • | 165 Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI), Hampton, Virginia
  • | 166 NOAA/NWS, Climate Prediction Center, College Park, Maryland; ESSIC/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • | 167 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
  • | 168 European Space Agency Climate Office, ECSAT, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom
  • | 169 Global Science and Technology, Inc., Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 170 NOAA/NESDIS, NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Asheville, North Carolina
  • | 171 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois
  • | 172 School of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, China
  • | 173 Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 174 Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany
  • | 175 TU Wien – University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
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Corresponding author: Robert Dunn / robert.dunn@metoffice.gov.uk

Corresponding author: Robert Dunn / robert.dunn@metoffice.gov.uk
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