All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 32 13 0
PDF Downloads 17 8 0

The First Air-Temperature Measurements for the Purposes of Battlefield Operations?

View More View Less
Full access

Close to the end of the severe winter 1808/09, a Russian force crossed the ice-bound Gulf of Bothnia from Finland to Sweden with the purpose of forcing Sweden to desist from taking sides with Great Britain against Napoléon. Generalmajor von Berg, one of the commanders of the force, took meteorological observations, including air-temperature measurements, during the crossing, a record of which he left behind in a journal. These air-temperature measurements appear to be the first of their kind in the history of land-based military forces.

In the discussion of the meteorological conditions of the above-mentioned harsh winter, use is made of unpublished meteorological measurements at Umeå, Sweden, and at Ylitornio (Över-Torneå), Finland. The latter were conducted by Johan Portin, a pioneer of meteorological observations near the Arctic Circle.

1 Dept. of History, Swedish University of Åbo.

2 Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem; now visiting with the Dept. of Meteorology, University of Helsinki.

Close to the end of the severe winter 1808/09, a Russian force crossed the ice-bound Gulf of Bothnia from Finland to Sweden with the purpose of forcing Sweden to desist from taking sides with Great Britain against Napoléon. Generalmajor von Berg, one of the commanders of the force, took meteorological observations, including air-temperature measurements, during the crossing, a record of which he left behind in a journal. These air-temperature measurements appear to be the first of their kind in the history of land-based military forces.

In the discussion of the meteorological conditions of the above-mentioned harsh winter, use is made of unpublished meteorological measurements at Umeå, Sweden, and at Ylitornio (Över-Torneå), Finland. The latter were conducted by Johan Portin, a pioneer of meteorological observations near the Arctic Circle.

1 Dept. of History, Swedish University of Åbo.

2 Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem; now visiting with the Dept. of Meteorology, University of Helsinki.

Save