Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from Geostationary Satellite Water Vapor Observations

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The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational geostationary meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water vapor imaging capabilities have increased as a result of improved radiometric sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. The addition of a water vapor sensing channel on the latest GMS permits nearly global viewing of upper-tropospheric water vapor (when joined with GOES and Meteosat) and enhances the commonality of geostationary meteorological satellite observing capabilities. Upper-tropospheric motions derived from sequential water vapor imagery provided by these satellites can be objectively extracted by automated techniques. Wind fields can be deduced in both cloudy and cloud-free environments. In addition to the spatially coherent nature of these vector fields, the GOES-8/9 multispectral water vapor sensing capabilities allow for determination of wind fields over multiple tropospheric layers in cloud-free environments. This article provides an update on the latest efforts to extract water vapor motion displacements over meteorological scales ranging from subsynoptic to global. The potential applications of these data to impact operations, numerical assimilation and prediction, and research studies are discussed.

*Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Madison, Wisconsin.

+National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, NOAA, Madison, Wisconsin.

#Advanced Satellite Products Project, NOAA NESDIS, Madison, Wisconsin.

@Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California.

Corresponding author address: Christopher Velden, UWCIMSS, 1225 West Dayton St., Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: chrisv@ssec.wisc.edu

The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational geostationary meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water vapor imaging capabilities have increased as a result of improved radiometric sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. The addition of a water vapor sensing channel on the latest GMS permits nearly global viewing of upper-tropospheric water vapor (when joined with GOES and Meteosat) and enhances the commonality of geostationary meteorological satellite observing capabilities. Upper-tropospheric motions derived from sequential water vapor imagery provided by these satellites can be objectively extracted by automated techniques. Wind fields can be deduced in both cloudy and cloud-free environments. In addition to the spatially coherent nature of these vector fields, the GOES-8/9 multispectral water vapor sensing capabilities allow for determination of wind fields over multiple tropospheric layers in cloud-free environments. This article provides an update on the latest efforts to extract water vapor motion displacements over meteorological scales ranging from subsynoptic to global. The potential applications of these data to impact operations, numerical assimilation and prediction, and research studies are discussed.

*Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Madison, Wisconsin.

+National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, NOAA, Madison, Wisconsin.

#Advanced Satellite Products Project, NOAA NESDIS, Madison, Wisconsin.

@Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California.

Corresponding author address: Christopher Velden, UWCIMSS, 1225 West Dayton St., Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: chrisv@ssec.wisc.edu
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