The 1995 Arizona Program: Toward a Better Understanding of Winter Storm Precipitation Development in Mountainous Terrain

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The 1995 Arizona Program was a field experiment aimed at advancing the understanding of winter storm development in a mountainous region of central Arizona. From 15 January through 15 March 1995, a wide variety of instrumentation was operated in and around the Verde Valley southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. These instruments included two Doppler dual-polarization radars, an instrumented airplane, a lidar, microwave and infrared radiometers, an acoustic sounder, and other surface-based facilities. Twenty-nine scientists from eight institutions took part in the program. Of special interest was the interaction of topographically induced, storm-embedded gravity waves with ambient upslope flow. It is hypothesized that these waves serve to augment the upslope-forced precipitation that falls on the mountain ridges. A major thrust of the program was to compare the observations of these winter storms to those predicted with the Clark-NCAR 3D, nonhydrostatic numerical model.

*National Weather Service, Rapid City, South Dakota.

+The Navajo Nation, Fort Defiance, Arizona.

#Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

@NCAR, Boulder, Colorado.

&NOAA/ERL/Environmental Technology Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado.

** Arizona Department of Water Resources, Phoenix, Arizona.

++University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Corresponding author address: Eric A. Betterton, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: BETTER@AIR.ATMO.ARIZONA.EDU

The 1995 Arizona Program was a field experiment aimed at advancing the understanding of winter storm development in a mountainous region of central Arizona. From 15 January through 15 March 1995, a wide variety of instrumentation was operated in and around the Verde Valley southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. These instruments included two Doppler dual-polarization radars, an instrumented airplane, a lidar, microwave and infrared radiometers, an acoustic sounder, and other surface-based facilities. Twenty-nine scientists from eight institutions took part in the program. Of special interest was the interaction of topographically induced, storm-embedded gravity waves with ambient upslope flow. It is hypothesized that these waves serve to augment the upslope-forced precipitation that falls on the mountain ridges. A major thrust of the program was to compare the observations of these winter storms to those predicted with the Clark-NCAR 3D, nonhydrostatic numerical model.

*National Weather Service, Rapid City, South Dakota.

+The Navajo Nation, Fort Defiance, Arizona.

#Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

@NCAR, Boulder, Colorado.

&NOAA/ERL/Environmental Technology Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado.

** Arizona Department of Water Resources, Phoenix, Arizona.

++University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Corresponding author address: Eric A. Betterton, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: BETTER@AIR.ATMO.ARIZONA.EDU
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