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Rain in Shallow Cumulus Over the Ocean: The RICO Campaign

Robert M. Rauber
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Bjorn Stevens
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Harry T. Ochs III
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Charles Knight
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B. A. Albrecht
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A. M. Blyth
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C. W. Fairall
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J. B. Jensen
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S. G. Lasher-Trapp
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O. L. Mayol-Bracero
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G. Vali
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Shallow, maritime cumuli are ubiquitous over much of the tropical oceans, and characterizing their properties is important to understanding weather and climate. The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) field campaign, which took place during November 2004–January 2005 in the trades over the western Atlantic, emphasized measurements of processes related to the formation of rain in shallow cumuli, and how rain subsequently modifies the structure and ensemble statistics of trade wind clouds. Eight weeks of nearly continuous S-band polarimetric radar sampling, 57 flights from three heavily instrumented research aircraft, and a suite of ground- and ship-based instrumentation provided data on trade wind clouds with unprecedented resolution. Observational strategies employed during RICO capitalized on the advances in remote sensing and other instrumentation to provide insight into processes that span a range of scales and that lie at the heart of questions relating to the cause and effects of rain from shallow maritime cumuli.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

University of Miami, Miami, Florida

University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

NOAA/ETL, Boulder, Colorado

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico

University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming

Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

SPEC, Inc., Boulder, Colorado

Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

CNRM/GAME, Météeo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France

Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom

University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Gerber Scientific, Inc., Reston, Virginia

University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island

Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, and Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, Netherlands

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon A supplement to this article is available online (DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-88-12-Rauber)

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robert M. Rauber, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 105 South Gregory St., Urbana, IL 61801, E-mail: rauber@atmos.uiuc.edu

Shallow, maritime cumuli are ubiquitous over much of the tropical oceans, and characterizing their properties is important to understanding weather and climate. The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) field campaign, which took place during November 2004–January 2005 in the trades over the western Atlantic, emphasized measurements of processes related to the formation of rain in shallow cumuli, and how rain subsequently modifies the structure and ensemble statistics of trade wind clouds. Eight weeks of nearly continuous S-band polarimetric radar sampling, 57 flights from three heavily instrumented research aircraft, and a suite of ground- and ship-based instrumentation provided data on trade wind clouds with unprecedented resolution. Observational strategies employed during RICO capitalized on the advances in remote sensing and other instrumentation to provide insight into processes that span a range of scales and that lie at the heart of questions relating to the cause and effects of rain from shallow maritime cumuli.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

University of Miami, Miami, Florida

University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

NOAA/ETL, Boulder, Colorado

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico

University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming

Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

SPEC, Inc., Boulder, Colorado

Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

CNRM/GAME, Météeo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France

Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom

University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Gerber Scientific, Inc., Reston, Virginia

University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island

Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada

Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, and Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland

Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, Netherlands

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon A supplement to this article is available online (DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-88-12-Rauber)

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Robert M. Rauber, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 105 South Gregory St., Urbana, IL 61801, E-mail: rauber@atmos.uiuc.edu
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