During November and December 2005, two consortia of mainly European groups conducted an aircraft campaign in Darwin, Australia, to measure the composition of the tropical upper-troposphere and tropopause regions, between 12 and 20 km, in order to investigate the transport and transformation in deep convection of water vapor, aerosols, and trace chemicals. The campaign used two high-altitude aircraft—the Russian M55 Geophysica and the Australian Grob 520 Egrett, which can reach 20 and 15 km, respectively—complemented by upward-pointing lidar measurements from the DLR Falcon and low-level aerosol and chemical measurements from the U.K. Dornier-228. The meteorology during the campaign was characterized mainly by premonsoon conditions—isolated afternoon thunderstorms with more organized convective systems in the evening and overnight. At the beginning of November pronounced pollution resulting from widespread biomass burning was measured by the Dornier, giving way gradually to cleaner conditions by December, thus affording the opportunity to study the influence of aerosols on convection. The Egrett was used mainly to sample in and around the outflow from isolated thunderstorms, with a couple of survey missions near the end. The Geophysica–Falcon pair spent about 40% of their flight hours on survey legs, prioritizing remote sensing of water vapor, cirrus, and trace gases, and the remainder on close encounters with storm systems, prioritizing in situ measurements. Two joint missions with all four aircraft were conducted: on 16 November, during the polluted period, sampling a detached anvil from a single-cell storm, and on 30 November, around a much larger multicellular storm.
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre, Jülich, Germany
Environmental Science Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
ETH, Zürich, Switzerland
Deutsches Zentrum fiir Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia