Hyperspectral Earth Observation from IASI: Five Years of Accomplishments

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  • 1 Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 2 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/CNRS/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 3 EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany
  • 4 NOAA/NESDIS, Camp Springs, Maryland
  • 5 Météo-France, and CNRS/CNRM-GAME, Paris, France
  • 6 UMPC University Paris 06, Paris, France
  • 7 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/CNRS/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 8 Spectroscopie de l'Atmosphère, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • 9 UPMC University Paris 06, Paris, and Université Versailles St.-Quentin, Versailles, and CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris, France
  • 10 Spectroscopie de l'Atmosphère, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • 11 NOAA/NCEP/EMC/IMSG, Camp Springs, Maryland
  • 12 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/CNRS/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 13 LISA-CNRS/Université de Paris 12 et Paris 7, Paris, France
  • 14 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • 15 Centre de Météorologie Spatiale, Météo-France, Lannion, France
  • 16 Météo-France, and CNRS/CNRM-GAME, Paris, France
  • 17 Dell, Inc., Round Rock, Texas
  • 18 NOAA/NESDIS, Camp Springs, Maryland
  • 19 Météo-France, and CNRS/CNRM-GAME, Paris, France
  • 20 Spectroscopie de l'Atmosphère, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • 21 University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
  • 22 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/CNRS/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 23 Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium
  • 24 EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany
  • 25 Centre de Météorologie Spatiale, Météo-France, Lannion, France
  • 26 DIFA, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
  • 27 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 28 Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 29 UMPC University Paris 06, Paris, France
  • 30 CNES, Toulouse, France
  • 31 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/CNRS/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 32 CNES, Toulouse, France
  • 33 University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
  • 34 EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany
  • 35 DIFA, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy
  • 36 University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 37 Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/CNRS/IPSL, Paris, France
  • 38 Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
  • 39 Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 40 NOAA/NESDIS, Camp Springs, Maryland
  • 41 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
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The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) forms the main infrared sounding component of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites's (EUMETSAT's) Meteorological Operation (MetOp)-A satellite (Klaes et al. 2007), which was launched in October 2006. This article presents the results of the first 4 yr of the operational IASI mission. The performance of the instrument is shown to be exceptional in terms of calibration and stability. The quality of the data has allowed the rapid use of the observations in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) and the development of new products for atmospheric chemistry and climate studies, some of which were unexpected before launch. The assimilation of IASI observations in NWP models provides a significant forecast impact; in most cases the impact has been shown to be at least as large as for any previous instrument. In atmospheric chemistry, global distributions of gases, such as ozone and carbon monoxide, can be produced in near–real time, and short-lived species, such as ammonia or methanol, can be mapped, allowing the identification of new sources. The data have also shown the ability to track the location and chemistry of gaseous plumes and particles associated with volcanic eruptions and fires, providing valuable data for air quality monitoring and aircraft safety. IASI also contributes to the establishment of robust long-term data records of several essential climate variables. The suite of products being developed from IASI continues to expand as the data are investigated, and further impacts are expected from increased use of the data in NWP and climate studies in the coming years. The instrument has set a high standard for future operational hyperspectral infrared sounders and has demonstrated that such instruments have a vital role in the global observing system.

The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) forms the main infrared sounding component of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites's (EUMETSAT's) Meteorological Operation (MetOp)-A satellite (Klaes et al. 2007), which was launched in October 2006. This article presents the results of the first 4 yr of the operational IASI mission. The performance of the instrument is shown to be exceptional in terms of calibration and stability. The quality of the data has allowed the rapid use of the observations in operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) and the development of new products for atmospheric chemistry and climate studies, some of which were unexpected before launch. The assimilation of IASI observations in NWP models provides a significant forecast impact; in most cases the impact has been shown to be at least as large as for any previous instrument. In atmospheric chemistry, global distributions of gases, such as ozone and carbon monoxide, can be produced in near–real time, and short-lived species, such as ammonia or methanol, can be mapped, allowing the identification of new sources. The data have also shown the ability to track the location and chemistry of gaseous plumes and particles associated with volcanic eruptions and fires, providing valuable data for air quality monitoring and aircraft safety. IASI also contributes to the establishment of robust long-term data records of several essential climate variables. The suite of products being developed from IASI continues to expand as the data are investigated, and further impacts are expected from increased use of the data in NWP and climate studies in the coming years. The instrument has set a high standard for future operational hyperspectral infrared sounders and has demonstrated that such instruments have a vital role in the global observing system.

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