The authors would like to acknowledge the feedback and input from other USAFA meteorology faculty members, including Capt. Kristin Dowd, Capt. Matt Ellis, and Lt. Col. David Vollmer. Valuable discussions of the project were also provided by the members of USAFA’s Center for Physics Education Research, including Dr. Kimm de la Harpe, Dr. Fred Kontur, Rebecca Lickiss, Capt. Carolyn Tewksbury, 2nd Lt. Ed Schroder, and Maj. Nate Terry. Distribution A, approved for public release, distribution unlimited.
Allen, K., , A. Stone, , T. R. Rhoads, , and T. J. Murphy, 2004: The Statistics Concept Inventory: Developing a valid and reliable instrument. Proc. 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conf. and Exposition, Salt Lake City, UT, ASEE, 958. [Available online at http://search.asee.org/search/fetch?url=file%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%2FE%3A%2Fsearch%2Fconference%2F28%2FAC%25202004Paper958.pdf&index=conference_papers&space=129746797203605791716676178&type=application%2Fpdf&charset=.]
Anderson, D. L., , K. M. Fisher, , and G. J. Norman, 2002: Development and validation of the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 39, 952–978, doi:10.1002/tea.10053.
Bar, V., , and A. S. Travis, 1991: Children’s views concerning phase changes. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 28, 363–382, doi:10.1002/tea.3660280409.
Chang, J.-Y., 1999: Teachers college students’ conceptions about evaporation, condensation, and boiling. Sci. Educ., 83, 511–526, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199909)83:53.0.CO;2-E.
Crooks, T. J., 1988: The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Rev. Educ. Res., 58, 438–481, doi:10.3102/00346543058004438.
Driver, R., 1985: Children’s Ideals in Science. Open University Press, 208 pp.
Engelhardt, P. V., 2009: An introduction to classical test theory as applied to conceptual multiple-choice tests. Getting Started Phys. Educ. Res., 2 (1). [Available online at http://www.per-central.org/items/detail.cfm?ID=8807.]
Ewing, M. S., , and T. J. Mills, 1994: Water literacy in college freshmen: Could a cognitive imagery strategy improve understanding? J. Environ. Educ., 25, 36–40, doi:10.1080/00958964.1994.9941963.
Fisher, K. M., , and D. E. Moody, 2002: Students’ misconceptions in biology. Mapping Biology Knowledge, K. M. Fisher, J. H. Wandersee, and D. E. Moody, Eds., Science and Technology Education Library, Vol. 11, Bluwer Academic, 55–76.
Gonzales-Espada, W. J., 2003: Physics education research in the United States: A summary of its rationale and main findings. Rev. Educ. Cienc., 4, 5–7.
Gopal, H., , J. Kleinsmidt, , J. Case, , and P. Musonge, 2004: An investigation of tertiary students’ understanding of evaporation, condensation, and vapor pressure. Int. J. Sci. Educ., 26, 1597–1620, doi:10.1080/09500690410001673829.
Haladyna, T. M., , S. M. Downing, , and M. C. Rodriguez, 2002: A review of multiple-choice item-writing guidelines for classroom assessment. Appl. Meas. Educ., 15, 309–334, doi:10.1207/S15324818AME1503_5.
Halloun, I., , and D. Hestenes, 1985: The initial knowledge state of college physics students. Amer. J. Phys., 53, 1043–1055, doi:10.1119/1.14030.
Heckler, A. F., , and E. C. Sayre, 2010: What happens between pre- and post-tests: Multiple measurements of student understanding during an introductory physics course. Amer. J. Phys., 78, 768–777, doi:10.1119/1.3384261.
Henriques, L., 2002: Children’s ideas about weather: A review of the literature. Sch. Sci. Math., 102, 202–215, doi:10.1111/j.1949-8594.2002.tb18143.x.
Kahl, J. D. W., 2008: Reflections on a large-lecture, introductory meteorology course: Goals, assessment, and opportunities for improvement. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 1029–1034, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2473.1.
Lewis, T. R., 2006: The tornado hazard in southern New England: History, characteristics, student and teacher perceptions. J. Geogr., 105, 258–266, doi:10.1080/00221340608978695.
Libarkin, J. C., , and S. W. Anderson, 2005: Assessment of learning in entry-level geoscience courses: Results from the Geoscience Concept Inventory. J. Geosci. Educ., 53, 394–401.
Libarkin, J. C., , and S. W. Anderson, 2006: Development of the Geoscience Concept Inventory. Proceedings of the National STEM Assessment Conference, D. Deeds and B. Callen, Eds., Drury University Doc., 148–158. [Available online at www.openwatermedia.com/downloads/STEM(for-posting).pdf.]
Novak, G. M., , E. T. Patterson, , A. D. Gavrin, , and W. Christian, 1999: Just-in-Time Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology. Prentice Hall, 188 pp.
Osborne, R. J., , and M. M. Cosgrove, 1983: Children’s conceptions of the changes of state of water. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 20, 825–838, doi:10.1002/tea.3660200905.
Paas, F., , A. Renkl, , and J. Sweller, 2003: Cognitive load theory and instructional design: Recent developments. J. Educ. Psychol., 38, 1–4, doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3801_1.
Piaget, J., 1929: The Child’s Conception of the World. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 399 pp.
Piaget, J., 1930: The Child’s Conception of Physical Causality. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 332 pp.
Polito, E. J., 2010: Student conceptions of weather phenomenon across multiple cognitive levels. M. A. dissertation, Dept. of Geosciences, San Francisco State University, 268 pp.
Posner, G. J., , K. A. Strike, , P. W. Hewson, , and W. A. Gertzog, 1982: Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change. Sci. Educ., 66, 211–227, doi:10.1002/sce.3730660207.
Roebber, P. J., 2005: Bridging the gap between theory and applications: An inquiry into atmospheric science teaching. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 507–517, doi:10.1175/BAMS-86-4-507.
Saçkes, M., , L. M. Flevares, , and K. C. Trundle, 2010: Four-to six-year-old children’s conceptions of the mechanism of rainfall. Early Child. Res. Quart., 25, 536–546, doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.01.001.
Schneps, M., 1997: Lessons from thin air. Minds of Our Own, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, DVD.
Sweller, J., 1988: Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognit. Sci., 12, 257–285, doi:10.1207/s15516709cog1202_4.
Sweller, J., , P. Ayres, , and S. Kalyuga, 2011: Cognitive Load Theory. Springer, 274 pp.
Tytler, R., 1998: Children’s concepts of air pressure: Exploring the nature of conceptual change. Int. J. Sci. Educ., 20, 929–958, doi:10.1080/0950069980200803.
Wandersee, J. H., , J. J. Mintzes, , and J. D. Novak, 1994: Research on alternative conceptions in science. Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning, D. L. Gabel, Ed., Macmillan, 177–210.
Zeilik, M., , C. Schau, , and N. Mattern, 1999: Conceptual astronomy. II. Replicating conceptual gains, probing attitude changes across three semesters. Amer. J. Phys., 67, 923–927, doi10.1119/1.19151.