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The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) – America Mission

Kenneth J. DavisaDepartment of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
bEarth and Environmental Systems Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

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Edward V. BrowellcSTARSS-III Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

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Sha FengaDepartment of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
dnow at Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

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Thomas LauvauxeLaboratoire des sciences du climat et de l’environnement, Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, CEA, UVSQ CEA-Saclay, l’Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

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Michael D. OblandfNASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

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Sandip PalgAtmospheric Science Division, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX

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Bianca C. BaierhCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO
iNOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, CO

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David F. BakerjCooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

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Ian T. BakerjCooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

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Zachary R. BarkleyaDepartment of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

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Kevin W. BowmankJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

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Yu Yan CuiaDepartment of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

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A. Scott DenninglDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

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Joshua P. DiGangifNASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

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Jeremy T. DoblermSpectral Sensor Solutions LLC, Fort Wayne, IN

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Alan FriednInstitute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

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Tobias GerkenaDepartment of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
onow at School of Integrated Sciences, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA

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Klaus KellerpDepartment of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
bEarth and Environmental Systems Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

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Bing LinfNASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

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Amin R. NehrirfNASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

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Caroline P. NormileaDepartment of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
qnow at the Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, D.C.

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Christopher W. O’DelljCooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

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Lesley E. OttrNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

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Anke RoigersDeutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

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Andrew E. SchuhjCooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

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Colm SweeneyiNOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory, Boulder, CO

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Yaxing WeitEnvironmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

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Brad WeiruUniversities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD
rNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

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Ming XuevCenter for Analysis and Prediction of Storms and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK

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Christopher A. WilliamswGraduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA

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Abstract

The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) – America NASA Earth Venture Suborbital Mission set out to improve regional atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) inversions by exploring the intersection of the strong GHG fluxes and vigorous atmospheric transport that occurs within the midlatitudes. Two research aircraft instrumented with remote and in situ sensors to measure GHG mole fractions, associated trace gases, and atmospheric state variables collected 1140.7 flight hours of research data, distributed across 305 individual aircraft sorties, coordinated within 121 research flight days, and spanning five, six-week seasonal flight campaigns in the central and eastern United States. Flights sampled 31 synoptic sequences, including fair weather and frontal conditions, at altitudes ranging from the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper free troposphere. The observations were complemented with global and regional GHG flux and transport model ensembles. We found that midlatitude weather systems contain large spatial gradients in GHG mole fractions, in patterns that were consistent as a function of season and altitude. We attribute these patterns to a combination of regional terrestrial fluxes and inflow from the continental boundaries. These observations, when segregated according to altitude and air mass, provide a variety of quantitative insights into the realism of regional CO2 and CH4 fluxes and atmospheric GHG transport realizations. The ACT-America data set and ensemble modeling methods provide benchmarks for the development of atmospheric inversion systems. As global and regional atmospheric inversions incorporate ACT-America’s findings and methods, we anticipate these systems will produce increasingly accurate and precise sub-continental GHG flux estimates.

Corresponding author: Kenneth J. Davis, kjd10@psu.edu

Abstract

The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) – America NASA Earth Venture Suborbital Mission set out to improve regional atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) inversions by exploring the intersection of the strong GHG fluxes and vigorous atmospheric transport that occurs within the midlatitudes. Two research aircraft instrumented with remote and in situ sensors to measure GHG mole fractions, associated trace gases, and atmospheric state variables collected 1140.7 flight hours of research data, distributed across 305 individual aircraft sorties, coordinated within 121 research flight days, and spanning five, six-week seasonal flight campaigns in the central and eastern United States. Flights sampled 31 synoptic sequences, including fair weather and frontal conditions, at altitudes ranging from the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper free troposphere. The observations were complemented with global and regional GHG flux and transport model ensembles. We found that midlatitude weather systems contain large spatial gradients in GHG mole fractions, in patterns that were consistent as a function of season and altitude. We attribute these patterns to a combination of regional terrestrial fluxes and inflow from the continental boundaries. These observations, when segregated according to altitude and air mass, provide a variety of quantitative insights into the realism of regional CO2 and CH4 fluxes and atmospheric GHG transport realizations. The ACT-America data set and ensemble modeling methods provide benchmarks for the development of atmospheric inversion systems. As global and regional atmospheric inversions incorporate ACT-America’s findings and methods, we anticipate these systems will produce increasingly accurate and precise sub-continental GHG flux estimates.

Corresponding author: Kenneth J. Davis, kjd10@psu.edu
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