All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 19 19 0
Full Text Views 527 527 223
PDF Downloads 498 498 225

Effects of the Pandemic on Observing the Global Ocean

Tim BoyerNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Tim Boyer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Huai-Min ZhangNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Huai-Min Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kevin O’BrienNOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington USA
Cooperative Institute for Climate Ocean and Ecosystem Studies, University of Washington, Seattle Washington, USA

Search for other papers by Kevin O’Brien in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
James ReaganNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by James Reagan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Stephen DiggsScripps Institute of Oceanography, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA

Search for other papers by Stephen Diggs in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Eric FreemanNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth Systems Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Eric Freeman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hernan GarciaNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Hernan Garcia in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Emma HeslopGlobal Ocean Observing System (GOOS) / Observation Coordination Group (OCG), Paris, France

Search for other papers by Emma Heslop in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Patrick HoganNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Patrick Hogan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Boyin HuangNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Boyin Huang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Li-Qing JiangNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth Systems Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Li-Qing Jiang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Alex KozyrNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth Systems Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Alex Kozyr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Chunying LiuNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Riverside inc., Asheville, North Carolina, USA

Search for other papers by Chunying Liu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ricardo LocarniniNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Ricardo Locarnini in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Alexey V. MishonovNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth Systems Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Alexey V. Mishonov in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Christopher PaverNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Christopher Paver in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Zhankun WangNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Northern Gulf Institute, Mississippi State University, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Zhankun Wang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Melissa ZwengUS Integrated Ocean Observing System, Silver Spring, MD, USA

Search for other papers by Melissa Zweng in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Simone AlinNOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington USA

Search for other papers by Simone Alin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Leticia BarberoNOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA

Search for other papers by Leticia Barbero in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
John A. BarthOregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

Search for other papers by John A. Barth in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mathieu BelbeochOceanOPS, Brest, France

Search for other papers by Mathieu Belbeoch in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Just CebrianNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Northern Gulf Institute, Mississippi State University, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Just Cebrian in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kenneth ConnellNOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington USA

Search for other papers by Kenneth Connell in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rebecca CowleyOceans and Atmosphere, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

Search for other papers by Rebecca Cowley in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Dmitry DukhovskoyNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA

Search for other papers by Dmitry Dukhovskoy in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nancy R. GalbraithWoods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Search for other papers by Nancy R. Galbraith in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Gustavo GoniNOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA

Search for other papers by Gustavo Goni in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Fred KatzNOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Silver Spring, Maryland, Asheville, North Carolina, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth Systems Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Fred Katz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Martin KrampOceanOPS, Brest, France

Search for other papers by Martin Kramp in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Arun KumarNOAA National Center for Environmental Prediction, College Park, MD, USA

Search for other papers by Arun Kumar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
David LeglerNOAA Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by David Legler in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rick LumpkinNOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA

Search for other papers by Rick Lumpkin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Clive R. McMahonIMOS Animal Tagging, Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Mossman, New South Wales, Australia

Search for other papers by Clive R. McMahon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Denis PierrotNOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA

Search for other papers by Denis Pierrot in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Albert J PlueddemannWoods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Search for other papers by Albert J Plueddemann in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Emily A. SmithNOAA Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA

Search for other papers by Emily A. Smith in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Adrienne SuttonNOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, Washington USA

Search for other papers by Adrienne Sutton in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Victor TurpinOceanOPS, Brest, France

Search for other papers by Victor Turpin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Long JiangObserving and Information Systems Department, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Search for other papers by Long Jiang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
V. SuneelNational Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India

Search for other papers by V. Suneel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Rik WanninkhofNOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA

Search for other papers by Rik Wanninkhof in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Robert A. WellerWoods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Search for other papers by Robert A. Weller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Annie P. WongUniversity of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Search for other papers by Annie P. Wong in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Full access

Abstract

The years since 2000 have been a golden age in in situ ocean observing with the proliferation and organization of autonomous platforms such as surface drogued buoys and subsurface Argo profiling floats augmenting ship-based observations. Global time series of mean sea surface temperature and ocean heat content are routinely calculated based on data from these platforms, enhancing our understanding of the ocean’s role in the Earth’s climate system. Individual measurements of meteorological, sea surface and subsurface variables directly improve our understanding of the Earth System, weather forecasting, and climate projections. They also provide the data necessary for validating and calibrating satellite observations. Maintaining this ocean observing system has been a technological, logistical, and funding challenge. The global COVID-19 pandemic, which took hold in 2020, added strain to the maintenance of the observing system. A survey of the contributing components of the observing system illustrates the impacts of the pandemic from January 2020 through December 2021. The pandemic did not reduce the short-term geographic coverage (days to months) capabilities mainly due to the continuation of autonomous platform observations. In contrast, the pandemic caused critical loss to longer-term (years to decades) observations, greatly impairing the monitoring of such crucial variables as ocean carbon and the state of the deep ocean. So, while the observing system has held under the stress of the pandemic, work must be done to restore the interrupted replenishment of the autonomous components and plan for more resilient methods to support components of the system that rely on cruise-based measurements.

Corresponding Author: Tim Boyer (tim.boyer@noaa.gov)

Abstract

The years since 2000 have been a golden age in in situ ocean observing with the proliferation and organization of autonomous platforms such as surface drogued buoys and subsurface Argo profiling floats augmenting ship-based observations. Global time series of mean sea surface temperature and ocean heat content are routinely calculated based on data from these platforms, enhancing our understanding of the ocean’s role in the Earth’s climate system. Individual measurements of meteorological, sea surface and subsurface variables directly improve our understanding of the Earth System, weather forecasting, and climate projections. They also provide the data necessary for validating and calibrating satellite observations. Maintaining this ocean observing system has been a technological, logistical, and funding challenge. The global COVID-19 pandemic, which took hold in 2020, added strain to the maintenance of the observing system. A survey of the contributing components of the observing system illustrates the impacts of the pandemic from January 2020 through December 2021. The pandemic did not reduce the short-term geographic coverage (days to months) capabilities mainly due to the continuation of autonomous platform observations. In contrast, the pandemic caused critical loss to longer-term (years to decades) observations, greatly impairing the monitoring of such crucial variables as ocean carbon and the state of the deep ocean. So, while the observing system has held under the stress of the pandemic, work must be done to restore the interrupted replenishment of the autonomous components and plan for more resilient methods to support components of the system that rely on cruise-based measurements.

Corresponding Author: Tim Boyer (tim.boyer@noaa.gov)
Save