This research was supported by the NASA Polar Research Program and the Arctic Program of the Office of Naval Research. Data analysis and figure production were done using FERRET, an interactive data manipulation package developed by the Thermal Mapping and Analysis Project at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. The authors gratefully acknowledge Steve Hankin and Jerry Davison for their guidance in using FERRET, Esther Munoz and Seelye Martin for providing the POLES gridded 2-m air temperature data and the surface station observations, Joey Comiso for providing his surface temperature analyses, Axel Schweiger for his help in interpreting the AORF data, Mark Serreze and Claire Hanson for their help with the Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive, and Aries Galindo and Karen Birchfield for their assistance in the preparation of some of the figures. This is Contribution 1746 from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory and Contribution 356 from the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean.
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