This paper is based on a portion of the first author’s Ph.D. thesis, completed under the second author’s supervision at the State University of New York at Albany. We are indebted to W. Lawrence Gates for his invaluable suggestions and a thorough review of an earlier draft. Comments and suggestions from James S. Boyle, Kenneth R. Sperber, and two anonymous reviewers are greatly appreciated. James S. Boyle also provided the data for Fig. 3. We wish to thank Anthony D. Del Genio for sharing some results from the NASA/GISS model and constructive discussions. Michael Fiorino and Anna McCravy helped with some of the figures. This work was supported by the Environmental Science Division of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts DEFG-0292-ER-61369 and W-7405-ENG-48, and the Climate Dynamics Division of the National Science Foundation under Contract ATM-9415336.
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