This work is supported by the NOAA Office of Global Programs-Atlantic Climate Change Program under Grants NA36GP0236 and NA56GP0213. I thank Mark Serreze of CIRES and the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments that improved this paper. Chung-Chieh Wang, of the Atmospheric Science Program at The Ohio State University, assisted in producing the diagrams. This is Byrd Polar Research Center contribution no. 1002.
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