This work was supported by NSF Science and Technology Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4) Grant ATM9405024 and DOE-ARM Grant DE-FG03-91ER61198. CEPEX was funded by NSF and DOE. We thank L. Shi for the use of her multispectral implementation of the discrete ordinate code, J. Coakley for his insightful comments regarding the PFD method, and W. Collins for advice regarding the interpretation of his clear-sky analyses. This is C4 Publication Number 147.
Arking, A., 1996: Absorption of solar energy in the atmosphere: Discrepancy between model and observations. Science,273, 779–782.
Briegleb, B., and V. Ramanathan, 1982: Spectral and diurnal variations in clear sky planetary albedo. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 1160–1171.
——, P. Minnis, V. Ramanathan, and E. Harrison, 1986: Comparison of regional clear-sky albedos inferred from satellite observations and model computations. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,25, 214–226.
Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate, 1993: CEPEX experiment design. R. Dirks, R. Grossman, A. Heymsfield, J. Kuettner, V. Ramanathan, and F. Valero, Eds., 56 pp. [Available from Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0239.].
Cess, R. D., E. G. Dutton, J. J. DeLuisi, and F. Jiang, 1991: Determining surface solar absorption from broadband satellite measurements for clear skies: Comparison with surface measurements. J. Climate,4, 236–247.
——, S. Nemesure, E. G. Dutton, J. J. DeLuisi, G. L. Potter, and J.-J. Morcrette, 1993: The impact of clouds on the shortwave radiation budget of the surface-atmosphere system: Interfacing measurements and models. J. Climate,6, 308–316.
——, and Coauthors, 1995: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observations versus models. Science,267, 496–499.
Coakley, J. A., R. D. Cess, and F. B. Yurevich, 1983: The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the earth’s radiation budget: A parameterization for climate models. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 116–138.
Collins, W. D., F. P. J. Valero, P. J. Flatau, D. Lubin, H. Grassl, P. Pilewskie, and J. Spinhirne, 1996: The radiative effects of convection in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 14 999–15 012.
Conant, W. C., 1996: An examination of the solar absorption under clear skies for the central equatorial Pacific: Observations versus models. M.S. thesis, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, 50 pp. [Available from Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0239.].
Li, Z., H. G. Leighton, K. Masuda, and T. Takashima, 1993a: Estimation of SW flux Absorbed at the surface from TOA reflected flux. J. Climate,6, 317–330.
——, ——, and R. D. Cess, 1993b: Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements: Comparisons with tower observations. J. Climate,6, 1764–1772.
——, H. W. Barker, and L. Moreau, 1995: The variable effect of clouds on atmospheric solar radiation. Nature,376, 486–490.
Michalsky, J. J., 1988: The Astronomical Almanac’s algorithm for approximate solar position (1950–2050). Sol. Energy,40, 227–235.
Ohmura, A., and H. Gilgen, 1993: Re-evaluation of the global energy balance. Interactions between Global Climate Systems, the Legacy of Hann, Geophys. Monogr., No. 75, IUGG, 93–110.
Pilewskie, P., and F. P. J. Valero, 1995: Direct observations of excess solar absorption by clouds. Science,267, 1626–1628.
Ramanathan, V., R. D. Cess, E. F. Harrison, P. Minnis, B. R. Barkstrom, E. Ahmad, and D. Hartmann, 1989: Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science,243, 57–63.
——, B. Subasilar, G. Zhang, W. Conant, R. D. Cess, J. Kiehl, H. Grassl, and L. Shi, 1995: Warm pool heat budget and shortwave cloud forcing: A missing physics? Science,267, 499–503.
Shettle, E. P., and R. W. Fenn, 1979: Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214, 94 pp. [Available from AFGL (OP), Hanscom AFB, MA 01731.].
Shi, L., 1994: Cloud radiative forcing on surface shortwave fluxes: A case study based on cloud lidar and radar exploratory test. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 25 909–25 919.
Spencer, J. W., 1989: Comments on Astronomical Almanac’s algorithm for approximate solar position (1950–2050). Sol. Energy,42, 353.
Stamnes, K., S. C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, 1988: Numerically stable algorithms for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media. Appl. Opt.,27, 2502–2509.
Stephens, G. L., 1996: How much solar radiation do clouds absorb? Science,271, 1131–1136.
——, and S. Tsay, 1990: On the cloud absorption anomaly. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,116, 671–704.
Valero, F. P. J., and P. Pilewskie, 1992: Latitudinal survey of spectral optical depths of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud—Derived particle sizes, columnar mass loadings, and effects on planetary albedo. Geophys. Res. Lett.,19, 163–166.
Weaver, C. P., W. D. Collins, and H. Grassl, 1994: Relationship between clear-sky atmospheric greenhouse effect and deep convection during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment: Model calculations and satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 25 891–25 901.
Wild, M., A. Ohmura, H. Gilgen, and E. Roeckner, 1995: Validation of GCM radiative fluxes using surface observations. J. Climate,8, 1309–1324.