We are grateful to S. Manabe, R. Stouffer, and the National Climatic Data Center for making the climate model data available to us, and to G. Flato, S. Manabe, and N. Untersteiner for helpful discussions during the course of this work. The following graciously provided information on the arctic climate simulated by various (GCM) climate models: H. Cattle and T. Johns (HADCM2), J. Maslanik (GENESIS), and J. Weatherly (NCAR). We thank K. A. Runciman for calculating the atmospheric heat flux convergence and the area-average sea ice thickness from the GFDL model output. This research was funded by NSF ARCSS Grant DPP-9113851 and a grant from the NOAA Office of Global and Climate Change.
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