We wish to thank Dr. Nikolay Bryazgin of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (St. Petersburg) for providing his monthly maps of Arctic precipitation and for helpful discussions. We are also grateful to the following colleagues at the Main Geophysical Observatory: Valentina Gavrilina, Veronika Govorkova, and Tatyana Pavlova for their computational assistance, and Zoya Bryn for the digitization of Dr. Bryazgin’s data.
The Illinois portion of this project was supported by the National Science Foundation’s Climate Dynamics Program through Grant ATM-9319952. We thank Xin Tao and and William Chapman for data processing and assistance with the graphics, and we thank Norene McGhiey for word processing the manuscript.
Finally, we express our appreciation to the staff of PCMDI (Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison), which coordinated AMIP and provided the AMIP model output and documentation. This study was performed as part of AMIP Diagnostic Subproject No. 8.
Aagaard, K., and E. C. Carmack, 1989: The role of sea ice and other fresh waters in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 14485–14498.
Bryazgin, N. N., 1976: Yearly mean precipitation in the Arctic region accounting for measurement errors (in Russian). Proc. Arctic Ant. Res. Inst.,323, 40–74.
——, and T. A. Shver, 1976: Atmospheric precipitation over the Arctic land watershed basin (in Russian). Proc. Arctic Ant. Res. Inst.,323, 75–86.
Dumenil, L., K. Isele, H.-J. Liebscher, U. Schroeder, M. Schumacher, and K. Wilke, 1993: Discharge data from 50 selected rivers for GCM validation. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie/Global Runoff Data Centre Rep. 100, 61 pp. [Available from Max-Planck- Institut für Meteorologie, Bundestrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.].
Environment Canada, 1994: Annual review: 1994. Climate Perspective,16, 1–10.
Gates, W. L., 1992: AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 1962–1970.
Golubev, V. S., and E. G. Bogdanova, 1996: Point measurements of solid precipitation. Proc. Workshop on the ACSYS Solid Precipitation Climatology Project, Reston, VA, World Climate Research Programme, 18–29.
Goodison, B. E., E. Elomaa, V. Golubev, T. Gunther, and B. Sevruk, 1994: WMO solid precipitation measurement intercomparison: Preliminary results. World Meteor. Org. TD-588, 15–20.
IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 572 pp.
Ivanov, V. V., 1976: Freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean. Proc. Arctic Ant. Res. Inst.,323, 138–147.
Jaeger, L., 1983: Monthly and areal patterns of mean global precipitation. Variations in the Global Water Budget, A. Street-Perrot, M. Beran, and R. Ratcliffe, Eds., D. Reidel, 129–140.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 437–471.
Karl, T. R., P. Ya. Groisman, R. R. Heim Jr., and R. W. Knight, 1993:Recent variations of snow cover and snowfall in North America and their relation to precipitation and temperature variations. J. Climate,6, 1327–1344.
Khrol, V. P., Ed., 1996: Atlas of Water Balance of the Northern Polar Area. Gidrometeoizdat, 81 pp.
Korzun, V. I., Ed., 1978: World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth. UNESCO Press, 663 pp.
Legates, D. R., and C. J. Willmott, 1990: Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gage-corrected global precipitation. Int. J. Climatol.,10, 111–133.
Mysak, L., D. K. Manak, and R. F. Marsden, 1990: Sea ice anomalies observed in the Greenland and Labrador seas during 1901–1984 and their relation to an interdecadal climate cycle. Climate Dyn.,5, 111–133.
Oechel, W. C., S. J. Hastings, G. Vourlitis, M. Jenkins, G. Riechers, and N. Grulke, 1993: Recent changes in Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon sink to a source. Nature,361, 520–523.
Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, 1983: The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle and climate. Variations in the Global Water Budget, A. Street-Perrot, M. Beran, and R. Ratcliffe, Eds., D. Reidel, 5–65.
Phillips, T. J., 1994: A summary documentation of the AMIP Models. Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison Rep. 18, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-116384, 343 pp. [Available from Lawrence Livermore National Lab., P.O. Box 808, L-264, Livermore, CA 94550.].
Serreze, M. C., R. G. Barry, and J. E. Walsh, 1995: Atmospheric water vapor characteristics at 70°N. J. Climate,8, 719–731.
Vowinckel, E., and S. Orvig, 1970: The climate of the North Polar Basin. World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 14, Climates of the Polar Regions, S. Orvig, Ed., Elsevier, 129–252.
WCRP, 1992: Scientific concept of the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). World Climate Research Programme WCRP-72, WMO/TD-486, 89 pp. [Available from World Meteorological Organization, Case Postale No. 2300, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.].
——, 1994: Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS): Initial implementation plan. World Climate Research Programme WCRP-85, WMO/TD-627, 66 pp. [Available from World Meteorological Organization, Case Postale No. 2300, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.].
Zubenok, L. I., 1976: Evaporation over the land watershed basin of the Arctic Ocean. Proc. Arctic Ant. Res. Inst.,323, 87–100.