Financial support for the biome simulations was provided by the European Community (EV5V-CT95-0075), the Swedish Natural Science Research Council (G-AA/GU 09334-321), and by the Craaford Fund (“The role of sea-ice and vegetation feedbacks in the last interglacial and mid-Holocene climates of northern Eurasia”). This research is a contribution to TEMPO (Testing Earth System Models with Paleoenvironmental-Observations), the IGBP-GAIM (Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling) Task Force “6000 yr BP experiment,” and PMIP, (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project). PMIP is sponsored by the IGBP and WCRP. We thank Colin Prentice and Jon Foley for their comments on the manuscript.
Alexander, R. C., and R. L. Mobley, 1976: Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1° global grid. Mon. Wea. Rev.,104, 143–148.
Anderson, P. M., and L. B. Brubaker, 1994: Vegetation history of northcentral Alaska: A mapped summary of late-Quaternary pollen data. Quat. Sci. Rev.,13, 71–92.
Bartlein, P. J., I. C. Prentice, and T. Webb III, 1986: Climatic response surfaces from pollen data for some eastern North American taxa. J. Biogeogr.,13, 35–57.
Bartman, F. L., 1980: A time variable model of Earth’s albedo. NASA Grant NSG-1482, University of Michigan, 70 pp. [Available from University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.].
Berger, A. L., 1978: Long-term variations of caloric solar radiation resulting from the earth’s orbital elements. Quat. Res.,9, 139–167.
——, and M. F. Loutre, 1991: Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quat. Sci. Rev.,10, 297–317.
——, ——, and C. Tricot, 1993: Insolation and Earth’s orbital periods. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 10 341–10 362.
Blondin, C., and H. Böttger, 1987: The surface and subsurface parameterization scheme in the ECMWF forecasting system: Revision and operational assessment of weather elements. ECMWF Tech. Memo 135, ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom. [Available from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, Berkshire R62 9AX, United Kingdom.].
Bonan, G. B., 1995a: Land–atmosphere CO2 exchange simulated by a land surface process model coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 2817–2831.
——, 1995b: Sensitivity of a GCM simulation to inclusion of inland water surfaces. J. Climate,8, 2691–2704.
——, 1996: A land surface model (LSM version 1.0) for ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric studies: Technical description and user’s guide. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-417-STR, NCAR, Boulder, CO, 165 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Budyko, M. I., 1956: Heat Balance of the Earth’s Surface. Gidrometeozidat, 255 pp.
Choisnel, E., 1984: Un modèle agrométéorologique opérationnel de bilan hydrique utilisant des données climatiques. Extended Abstracts, Conf. Int. CIID “Les Besoins en Eau des Cultures,” Paris, France.
Claussen, M., 1996: Variability of global biome patterns as function of initial and boundary conditions in a climate model. Climate Dyn.,12, 371–379.
——, 1997: Modeling bio-geophysical feedback in the African and Indian monsoon region. Climate Dyn.,13, 247–257.
——, and M. Esch, 1993: Biomes computed from simulated climatologies. Climate Dyn.,9, 235–243.
——, and V. Gaylor, 1997: The greening of Sahara during the mid-Holocene: Results of an interactive atmosphere–biosphere model. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. Lett.,6, 369–377.
Coe, M., 1997: The simulation of continental surface water: An application in Holocene North Africa. J. Climate,10, 1680–1689.
Cohen, J., 1960: A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ. Psychol. Meas.,20, 37–46.
COHMAP Members, 1988: Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years:Observations and model simulations. Science,241, 1043–1052.
de Noblet, N., I. C. Prentice, S. Joussaume, D. Texier, A. Botta, and A. Haxeltine, 1996: Possible role of atmospheric–biosphere interactions in triggering the last glaciation. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 3191–3194.
Ducoudré, N., K. Laval, and A. Perrier, 1993: SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land–atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate,6, 248–273.
Foley, J., J. E. Kutzbach, M. T. Coe, and S. Levis, 1994: Feedbacks between climate and boreal forests during the Holocene epoch. Nature,371, 52–54.
Gallimore, R. G., and J. E. Kutzbach, 1989: Effects of soil moisture on the sensitivity of a climate model to earth orbital forcing at 9000 yr BP. Climate Change,14, 175–205.
Gates, W. L., 1976: Modeling the Ice-Age climate. Science,191, 1138–1144.
——, 1992: AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 1962–1970.
——, and Coauthors, 1996: Climate models—Evaluation. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 228–284.
Geleyn, J.-F., and H. J. Preuss, 1983: A new data set of satellite-derived surface albedo values for operational use at ECMWF. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol.,32A, 353–359.
Gregory, D., and R. N. B. Smith, 1990: Canopy, surface and soil hydrology. UKMO Unified Model Documentation Paper 25, UKMO, Bracknell, United Kingdom, 100 pp. [Available from United Kingdom Meteorological Office, London Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SY, United Kingdom.].
Hack, J. J., B. A. Boville, B. P. Briegleb, J. T. Kiehl, P. J. Rasch, and D. L. Williamson, 1993: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Tech. Note TN-382+STR, NCAR, Boulder, CO, 120 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
——, ——, J. T. Kiehl, P. J. Rasch, and D. L. Williamson, 1994: Climate statistics from the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model CCM2. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 20 785–20 813.
Hall, N. M. J., and P. J. Valdes, 1997: A GCM simulation of the climate 6000 years ago. J. Climate,10, 3–17.
Harrison, S. P., 1989: Lake levels and climatic change in eastern North America. Climate Dyn.,3, 157–167.
——, and J. Dodson, 1993: Climates of Australia and New Guinea since 18,000 yr BP. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 265–293.
——, J. E. Kutzbach, I. C. Prentice, P. Behling, and M. T. Sykes, 1995: The reponse of Northern Hemisphere extratropical climate and vegetation to orbitally-induced changes in insolation during the last interglacial: Results of atmospheric general circulation model and biome simulations. Quat. Res.,43, 174–184.
——, G. Yu, and P. E. Tarasov, 1996: The Holocene lake-level record from Eurasia. Quat. Res.,45, 138–159.
Hewitt, C. D., and J. F. B. Mitchell, 1996: GCM simulations of the climate of 6 kyr BP: Mean changes and interdecadal variability. J. Climate,9, 3505–3529.
Hope, G., 1996: Quaternary change and the historical biogeography of Pacific islands. The Origin and Evolution of Pacific Island Biotas, New Guinea to Eastern Polynesia: Patterns and Processes, A. Keast, and S. E. Miller, Eds., SPB Academic Publishing, 165–190.
Imbrie, J., 1985: A theoretical framework for the Pleistocene Ice Ages. J. Geol. Soc. (London),142, 417–432.
Jolly, D., S. P. Harrison, B. Damnati, and R. Bonnefille, 1998a: Simulated climate and biomes of Africa during the late Quaternary:Comparison with pollen and lake status data. Quat. Sci. Rev.,17, 629–657.
——, and Coauthors, 1998b: Biome reconstruction from pollen and plant macrofossil data for Africa and the Arabian peninsula at 0 and 6 ka. J. Biogeogr., in press.
Joussaume, S., and K. E. Taylor, 1995: Status of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Proc. First Int. AMIP Science Conf., Monterey, CA, WCRP, 425–430.
——, J. Jouzel, and R. Sadourny, 1989: Simulations of the last glacial maximum with an atmospheric general circulation model including paleoclimatic tracer cycles. Understanding Climatic Change, Geophys. Monogr., No. 52, Amer. Geophys. Union, 159–162.
Kattenberg, A., and Coauthors, 1996: Climate models—Projections of future climate. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 285–357.
Kiehl, J. T., 1994: Sensitivity of a GCM climate simulation to differences in continental versus maritime cloud drop size. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 23 107–23 115.
——, B. Boville, B. Briegleb, J. Hack, P. Rasch, and D. Williamson, 1996: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-420-STR, NCAR, Boulder, CO. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Kutzbach, J. E., and B. L. Otto-Bleisner, 1982: The sensitivity of the African-Asian monsoonal climate to orbital parameter changes for 9000 years B. P. in a low-resolution general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 1177–1188.
——, and P. J. Guetter, 1986: The influence of changing orbital parameters and surface boundary conditions on climate simulations for the past 18 000 years. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 1726–1759.
——, and R. G. Gallimore, 1988: Sensitivity of a coupled atmosphere/mixed layer ocean model to changes in orbital forcing at 9000 years BP. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 803–821.
——, P. J. Guetter, P. Behling, and R. Selin, 1993: Simulated climatic changes: Results of the COHMAP climate-model experiments. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 24–93.
——, G. B. Bonan, J. A. Foley, and S. P. Harrison, 1996: Feedbacks between climate and grasslands/soils in northern Africa during the middle Holocene. Nature,384, 623–626.
——, R. Gallimore, S. P. Harrison, P. Behling, R. Selin, and F. Laarif, 1998: Climate simulations for the past 21,000 years. Quat. Sci. Rev.,17, 473–506.
Lautenschlager, M., and K. Herterich, 1990: Atmospheric response to ice-age conditions: Climatology near the earth’s surface. J. Geophys. Res.,95 (D13), 22 547–22 557.
Leemans, R., and W. Cramer, 1991: The IIASA climate database for mean monthly values of temperature, precipitation and cloudiness on a terrestrial grid. Research Rep. RR-91-18, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, 62 pp. [Available from International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.].
Liao, X., F. A. Street-Perrott, and J. F. B. Mitchell, 1994: GCM experiments with different cloud parameterization: Comparisons with palaeoclimatic reconstructions for 6000 years B. P. Palaeoclim.: Data Modell.,1, 99–123.
Lohzkin, A. V., 1993: Geochronology of late Quaternary events in northeastern Russia. Radiocarbon,35, 429–433.
Maat, P. B., and W. C. Johnson, 1996: Thermoluminescence and new 14C age estimates for late Quaternary loesses in southwestern Nebraska. Geomorphology,17, 115–128.
Manabe, S., and D. G. Hahn, 1977: Simulation of the tropical climate of an ice age. J. Geophys. Res.,82, 3889–3911.
——, and A. J. Broccoli, 1985: The influence of continental ice sheets on the climate of an ice age. J. Geophys. Res.,90, 2167–2190.
——, J. Smagorinsky, and R. F. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev.,93, 769–798.
Markgraf, V., 1993: Climatic history of Central and South America since 18,000 yr B.P.: Comparison of pollen records and model simulations. Global Climates since the LastGlacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 357–385.
——, J. R. Dodson, A. P. Kershaw, M. S. McGlone, and N. Nicholls, 1992: Evolution of late Pleistocene and Holocene climates in the circum-South Pacific land areas. Climate Dyn.,6, 193–211.
Matthews, E., 1983: Global vegetation and land use: New high-resolution data bases for climate studies. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 474–487.
Mitchell, J. F. B., N. S. Grahame, and K. J. Needham, 1988: Climate simulations for 9000 years before present: Seasonal variations and effect of the Laurentide ice sheet. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 8283–8303.
Monserud, R. A., 1990: Methods for comparing global vegetation maps. Working Paper WP-90-40, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, 22 pp. [Available from International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria.].
——, and R. Leemans, 1992: Comparing global vegetation maps with the Kappa statistic. Ecol. Modell.,62, 275–293.
Muhs, D. R., 1985: Age and paleoclimatic significance of Holocene sand dunes in northeastern Colorado. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr.,74, 566–582.
——, and P. B. Maat, 1993: The potential response of Great Plains eolian sands to greenhouse warming and precipitation reduction. J. Arid Environ.,25, 351–361.
Overpeck, J. T., R. S. Webb, and T. Webb III, 1992: Mapping eastern North American vegetation change of the past 18 ka: No-analogs and the future. Geology,20, 1071–1074.
Peltier, W. R., 1994: Ice age paleotopography. Science,265, 195–201.
Pollard, D., and S. L. Thompson, 1995: Use of a land-surface-transfer scheme (LSX) in a global climate model: The response to doubling stomatal resistance. Global Planet. Change,10, 129–161.
Prentice, I. C., and T. Webb III, 1998: BIOME 6000: Reconstructing global mid-Holocene vegetation patterns from paleoecological records. J. Biogeogr., in press.
——, W. Cramer, S. P. Harrison, R. Leemans, R. A. Monserud, and A. M. Solomon, 1992: A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. J. Biogeogr.,19, 117–134.
——, M. T. Sykes, M. Lautenschlager, S. P. Harrison, O. Denissenko, and P. J. Bartlein, 1994: Modelling the increase in terrestrial carbon storage after the last glacial maximum. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. Lett.,3, 67–76.
——, J. Guiot, B. Huntley, D. Jolly, and R. Cheddadi, 1996: Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: A general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dyn.,12, 185–194.
Preuss, J. H., and J.-F. Geleyn, 1980: Surface albedos derived from satellite data and their impact on forecast models. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol.,29A, 345–356.
Richard, P. J. H., 1995: Le couvert végétal du Québec-Labrador il y a 6000 ans BP: Essai. Geogr. Phys. Quat.,49, 117–140.
Rind, D., 1987: Components of the ice age circulation. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 4241–4281.
Ritchie, J. C., 1987: The Postglacial Vegetation of Canada. Cambridge University Press, 187 pp.
——, and S. P. Harrison, 1993: Western Canada—Pollen and lake level data for climatic history. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 401–414.
Shea, D. J., K. E. Trenberth, and R. W. Reynolds, 1990: A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-345+STR, NCAR, Boulder, CO, 60 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Shi, Y. F., Z. C. Kong, S. M. Wang, L. Y. Tang, F. B. Wang, T. D. Yao, P. Y. Zhao, and S. H. Shi, 1993: Mid-Holocene climates and environments in China. Global Planet. Change,7, 219–233.
Street, F. A., and A. T. Grove, 1976: Environmental and climatic implications of late Quaternary lake-level fluctuations in Africa. Nature,261, 385–390.
Street-Perrott, F. A., and R. A. Perrott, 1993: Holocene vegetation, lake levels and climate of Africa. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 318–356.
——, J. F. B. Mitchell, D. S. Marchand, and J. S. Brunner, 1990: Milankovitch and albedo forcing of the tropical monsoons: A comparison of geologic evidence and numerical simulations for 9,000 yr B. P. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, Earth Sci.,81, 407–427.
Tarasov, P. E., and Coauthors, 1998: Present-day and mid-Holocene biomes reconstructed from pollen and plant macrofossil data from the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. J. Biogeogr., in press.
TEMPO, 1996: The potential role of vegetation feedbacks in the climate sensitivity of high-latitude regions: A case study at 6000 years before present. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,10, 727–736.
Texier, D., and Coauthors, 1997: Quantifying the role of biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks in climate change: A coupled model simulation for 6000 yr BP and comparison with palaeodata for northern Eurasia and northern Africa. Climate Dyn.,13, 865–881.
Thompson, R. S., C. Whitlock, P. J. Bartlein, S. P. Harrison, and W. G. Spaulding, 1993: Climatic changes in the western United States since 18,000 yr BP. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 468–513.
Thompson, S. L., and D. Pollard, 1997: Greenland and Antarctic mass balances for present and doubled atmospheric CO2 from the GENESIS Version-2 global climate model. J. Climate,10, 871–900.
Warrilow, D. A., A. B. Sangster, and A. Slingo, 1986: Modelling of land surface processes and their influence on European climate. Dynamic Climatology Tech. Note DCTN 38, UKMO, Bracknell, United Kingdom, 23 pp. [Available from Dynamical Climatology Branch, United Kingdom Meteorological Office, London Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SY, United Kingdom.].
Webb, T., III, P. J. Bartlein, S. P. Harrison, and K. H. Anderson, 1993:Vegetation, lake-levels, and climate in eastern North America since 12 000 yr BP. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 415–467.
Williams, J., R. G. Barry, and W. M. Washington, 1974: Simulation of the atmospheric circulation using the NCAR Global Circulation Model with Ice Age boundary conditions. J. Appl. Meteor.,13, 305–317.
Wilson, M. F., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1985: A global archive of land cover and soils data sets for use in general circulation models. Int. J. Climatol.,5, 119–143.
Winkler, M. G., and P. K. Wang, 1993: The late-Quaternary vegetation and climate of China. Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum, H. E. Wright Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., University of Minnesota Press, 221–261.
Woodward, F. I., 1987: Climate and Plant Distribution. Cambridge University Press, 174 pp.
Wright, H. E., Jr., J. E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, and P. J. Bartlein, Eds., 1993: Global Climates since the Last Glacial Maximum. University of Minnesota Press, 569 pp.
Yu, G., and S. P. Harrison, 1996: An evaluation of the simulated water balance of Eurasia and northern Africa at 6000 yr BP using lake status data. Climate Dyn.,12, 723–735.
——, I. C. Prentice, S. P. Harrison, and X. Sun, 1998: Biome reconstructions for China at 0 and 6ka. J. Biogeogr., in press.