We would like to thank Myles Allen of the Space Science Department at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for helpful discussions during the course of this work and Myles Allen, Tim Johns, and John Mitchell for improvements to earlier drafts of this paper. We are grateful to Dr. G. North and an anonymous reviewer whose comments also helped to improve the manuscript. This work was supported by the U.K. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions under Contract PECD 7/12/37.
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