This work has benefited from discussions with Drs. T. Barnett, N. Barth, A. Gershunov, J. Sprintall, and T. Stockdale, and would not have been possible without the enthusiasm and computational expertise of J. Ritchie. The coupled model has been generously made available by the Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg. Computations were performed at the National Energy Research Super computer Center (NERSC), and support by the Environmental Science Division of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE DE-FG03-ER61198) as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, and by the National Science Foundation (NSF ATM-93-14495) are gratefully acknowledged.
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