This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSFATM 9314495, the U.S. Department of Energy’s CHAMP program under Grant DE-FG03-91ER61215 (T.P.B.), NOAA via the Lamont/SIO Consortium program, the European Community under Grant No. EV5V-CT94-0538 (DG 12 DTEE), and the German government under Grant No. 07VKV01/1.
Alexander, M. A., 1990: Simulation of the response of the North Pacific Ocean to the anomalous atmospheric circulation associated with El Niño. Climate Dyn.,5, 53–65.
Anderson, D. L. T., and A. E. Gill, 1975: Spin-up of a stratified ocean with application to upwelling. Deep-Sea Res.,22, 583–596.
——, K. Bryan, A. E. Gill, and R. C. Pacanowski, 1979: The transient response of the North Atlantic—Some model studies. J. Geophys. Res.,84, 4795–4815.
Barnett, T. P., and R. Preisendorfer, 1987: Origins and levels of monthly forecast skill for the United States surface air temperatures determined by canonical correlation analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 756–773.
Bjerknes, J., 1964: Atlantic air–sea interaction. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 10, Academic Press, 1–82.
Chang, P., L. Ji, and H. Li, 1996: A decadal climate variation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from thermodynamic air–sea interactions. Nature,385, 516–518.
Davis, R., 1976: Predictability of sea surface temperature and sea surface pressure anomalies over the North Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,6, 249–266.
Delworth, T. L., 1996: North Atlantic interannual variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,9, 2356–2375.
——, S. Manabe, and R. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variability of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,6, 1993–2011.
Deser, C., and M. L. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–1989. J. Climate,6, 1743–1753.
DKRZ, 1992: The ECHAM-3 atmospheric general circulation model. Tech. Rep. 6, 184 pp. [Available from DKRZ, Bundestr. 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.].
Frankignoul, C., 1985: Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves and air–sea feedback in the middle latitudes. Rev. Geophys.,23, 357–390.
——, and K. Hasselmann, 1977: Stochastic climate models. Part II: Application to sea–surface temperature anomalies and thermocline variability. Tellus,29, 289–305.
——, P. Müller, and E. Zorita, 1997: A simple model of the decadal response of the ocean to stochastic wind forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 1533–1546.
Frey, H., M. Latif, and T. Stockdale, 1997: The coupled GCM ECHO2. Part I: The tropical Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 703–720.
Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Graham, N. E., T. P. Barnett, R. Wilde, M. Ponater, and S. Schubert, 1994: On the roles of tropical and midlatitude SSTs in forcing interannual to interdecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate,7, 1416–1441.
Hasselmann, K., 1976: Stochastic climate models. Part I: Theory. Tellus,28, 473–485.
Hense, A., R. Glowienka-Hense, and H. von Storch, 1990: Northern Hemisphere atmospheric response to changes of the Atlantic Ocean SST on decadal timescales. Climate Dyn.,4, 157–174.
Hoskins, B. J., and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 1179–1196.
Houghton, R. W., and Y. M. Tourre, 1992: Characteristics of low-frequency sea surface temperature fluctuations in the tropical Atlantic. J. Climate,5, 765–771.
James, I. N., and P. M. James, 1989: Ultralow-frequency variability in a simple circulation model. Nature,342, 53–55.
Kharin, V. V., 1995: The relationship between sea surface temperature anomalies and the atmospheric circulation in GCM experiments. Climate Dyn.,11, 359–375.
Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate,7, 141–157.
——, and N. C. Lau, 1992: The general circulation model response to a North Pacific SST anomaly: Dependence on timescale and pattern polarity. J. Climate,5, 271–283.
Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science,266, 634–637.
——, and ——, 1996: Decadal variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate,9, 2407–2423.
——, T. Stockdale, J. O. Wolff, G. Burgers, E. Maier-Reimer, M. M. Junge, K. Arpe, and L. Bengtsson, 1994: Climatology and variability in the ECHO coupled GCM. Tellus,46A, 351–366.
Lau, N. C., and M. J. Nath, 1990: A general circulation model study of the atmospheric response to observed extratropical SST anomalies in 1950–79. J. Climate,3, 965–989.
Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper 13, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 173 pp and 17 microfiche.
——, J. I. Antonov, and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 m in the North Atlantic Ocean. Science,266, 96–99.
Luksch, U., H. von Storch, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1990: Modeling North Pacific SST anomalies as a response to anomalous atmospheric forcing. J. Mar. Sys.,1, 155–168.
Metha, V. M., and T. Delworth, 1995: Decadal variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean surface temperature in shipboard measurements and in a global ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,8, 172–190.
Mikolajewicz, U., and E. Maier-Reimer, 1992: Internal secular variability in an OGCM. Climate Dyn.,4, 145–156.
Molinari, R. L., D. A. Mayer, J. F. Festa, and H. F. Bezdek, 1997: Multi-year variability in the near-surface temperature structure of the midlatitude western North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,102 (C2), 3267–3278.
Namias, J., 1959: Recent seasonal interactions between North Pacific waters and the overlying atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res.,64, 631–646.
——, 1969: Seasonal interactions between North Pacific and the atmosphere during the 1960s. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 173–192.
——, and D. R. Cayan, 1982: Large-scale air–sea interactions and short-period climate fluctuations. Science,214, 869–876.
Neelin, J. D., M. Latif, and F. F. Jin, 1994: Dynamics of coupled ocean–atmosphere models: The tropical problem. Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech.,26, 617–659.
Palmer, T. N., and Z. Sun, 1985: A modeling and observational study of the relationship between sea surface temperature in the northwest Atlantic and the atmospheric general circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,111, 947–975.
Pitcher, E. J., M. L. Blackmon, and S. Muñoz, 1988: The effect of North Pacific temperature anomalies on the January climate of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 173–188.
Ratcliffe, R., and R. Murray, 1970: New lag associations between North Atlantic sea surface temperature and European pressure applied to long-range weather forecasting. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,96, 226–246.
Robertson, A. W., 1996: Interdecadal variability over the North Pacific in a multi-century climate simulation. Climate Dyn.,12, 227–241.
Roeckner, E., and Coauthors, 1992: Simulation of the present-day climate with the ECHAM model: Impact of model physics and resolution. Rep. 93, 171 pp. [Available from Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundestr. 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.].
Servain, J., 1991: Simple climate indices for the tropical Atlantic Ocean and some applications. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 15 137–15 146.
Stommel, H., 1961: Thermohaline convection with two stable regimes of flow. Tellus,13, 224–230.
Sturges, W., and B. G. Hong, 1995: Wind forcing of the Atlantic thermocline along 32°N at low frequencies. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 1706–1715.
Sutton, R. T., and M. R. Allen, 1997: Decadal predictability in Gulf Stream sea surface temperatures. Nature,389, 563–567.
Ting, M., 1991: The stationary wave response to a midlatitude SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 1249–1275.
von Storch, H., G. Bürger, R. Schnur, and J. S. von Storch, 1995: Principal oscillation patterns: A review. J. Climate,8, 377–400.
Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 784–812.
——, C. Smith, and Q. Jiang, 1990: Spatial patterns of atmospheric–ocean interaction in the northern winter. J. Climate,3, 990–998.
Weaver, A. J., and E. S. Sarachik, 1991: Evidence for decadal variability in an ocean general circulation model: An advective mechanism. Atmos.–Ocean,29, 197–231.
Weisse, R., U. Mikolajewicz, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1994: Decadal variability of the North Atlantic in an ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 12 411–12 421.
Zorita, E., and C. Frankignoul, 1997: Modes of North Atlantic decadal variability in the ECHAM1/LSG coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,10, 183–200.
——, V. Kharin, and H. von Storch, 1992: The atmospheric circulation and sea–surface temperature in the North Atlantic area in winter:Their interaction and relevance for Iberian precipitation. J. Climate,5, 1097–1108.