This work is strongly motivated by discussions with Dr. R. Seager, Ms. A. Clement, and Dr. M. Cane. This work has also benefited from discussions and comments from Drs. T. Knutson, R. Oglesby, D. Gu, G. Meehl, S. Manabe, R. Miller, and the two anonymous reviewers. The OGCM experiments are performed by Mr. Boyin Huang. This work is supported by NSF and NOAA.
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