This work was begun by PJR during a one year visit to the Meteorological Institute of Stockholm University and the ECMWF in 1991. It is a great pleasure to finally acknowledge the time spent there. PJR greatly benefitted from discussions with H. Sundqvist, M. Tiedtke, M. Miller, and others at both institutions. We also benefitted from discussions with M. Barth, A. Heymsfield, J. Hack, J. Hurrell, J. Kiehl, M. Lawrence, G. McFarquhar, J. Petch, C. Zender, and other colleagues and visitors to NCAR. The two anonymous referees made constructive comments that helped the manuscript materially. Thanks go to B. Eaton for help in analysis of the runs and to him and Pawel Smolarkiewicz for help in preparation of the figures. JEK acknowledges support from The Research Council of Norway (Programme for Supercomputing) through a grant of computer time.
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