The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under Grant 07 VKV 01/1, the NOAA-sponsored SIO/Lamont Consortium (NOAA NA47GPO188), DOE’s CHAMMP effort (DE-FG03-91-ER61215), and the National Science Foundation (NSF ATM-93-14495). We are grateful to Warren White who shared with us the results of his observational studies that provided the motivation for this work. Also, we would like to thank Niklas Schneider and Mojib Latif for valuable comments. Special thanks to Josef Oberhuber for numerous discussions and to Andreas Bacher who did all the coupling work and provided the filter routines. Finally, the considered and spurring reviewers’ suggestions had a substantial impact on this article. We thank them for their effort.
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