We are indebted to Jochem Marotzke for many useful discussions. Seventy percent ($17,000) of this research was funded jointly by the U.S. Deptartment of Energy’s (DoE) National Institute of Global Environmental Change (NIGEC) through the NIGEC Northeast Regional Center at Harvard University (DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-90ER61010) and by the DoE’s Program for Computer Hardware, Applied Mathematics, and Model Physics. Financial support was also contributed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) through the TEPCO/MIT Environmental Research Program. Financial support does not constitute an endorsement by DoE or TEPCO of the views expressed in this article.
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