The research reported herein was funded by the NASA Pathfinder Program NAGW-4749 and NOAA/NASA Joint Program for Enhanced Datasets for Analysis and Applications. We thank David Parker for the time series of the U.K. Meteorological Office SSTs and NMATs and for several suggestions for the manuscript. In addition we thank two anonymous referees who provided rigorous, thorough, and helpful reviews of earlier versions of the manuscript.
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