The authors would like to thank Professor A. Arakawa for his interest during this study and Professor G. S. Philander for several stimulating discussions. Comments from Dr. Steve Klein and an anonymous reviewer also helped improve the manuscript. Dr. C.-C. Ma helped to set up the CGCM experiments. Support was provided by NOAA GOALS Grant NA66GP0121 and by the Campus Laboratory Cooperation project of DOE and the University of California. Model integrations were performed at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Climate Simulation Laboratory at NCAR.
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