We would like to thank Drs. Yoshihiro Tachibana and Jinro Ukita for heated discussion and encouragement throughout this study. We also thank Dr. Masaru Chiba for his technical support in numerical experiments using AGCM. Our numerical model integrations were carried out on a HITAC S-3800/300 at the Hokkaido University Computing Center and on a Cray T932 at National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was used for drawing the figures. One of the authors (M.H.) was supported by Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists. A major portion of this work is based on a Ph.D. dissertation of M.H. at Hokkaido University. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, and by a Grant-in-Aid for Cooperative Research from Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo.
Agnew, T., 1993: Simultaneous winter sea-ice and atmospheric circulation anomaly patterns. Atmos.–Ocean,31, 259–280.
Alexander, M. A., 1992: Midlatitude atmosphere–ocean interaction during El Niño. Part I: The North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate,5, 944–958.
Aso, T., 1986: Ohôtsuku-kai no kaihyô bumpu to kishô (Distribution of sea ice and weather conditions in the Sea of Okhotsk). Gijutsu Jiho Bessatsu,35, 5–14.
Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson, 1987: On the relationship between atmospheric circulation and fluctuations in the sea ice extents of the Bering and Okhotsk seas. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 7141–7162.
Chiba, M., K. Yamazaki, K. Shibata, and Y. Kuroda, 1996: The description of the MRI Atmospheric Spectral GCM (MRI-GSPM) and its mean statistics based on 10-year integration. Pap. Meteor. Geophys.,47, 1–45.
Crane, R. G., 1978: Seasonal variations of sea ice extent in the Davis Strait–Labrador Sea area and relationships with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation. Arctic,31, 434–447.
Curry, J. A., W. B. Rossow, D. A. Randall, and J. L. Schramm, 1996:Overview of Arctic cloud and radiation characteristics. J. Climate,9, 1731–1764.
Esbensen, S. K., and Y. Kushnir, 1981: The Heat Budget of the Global Ocean: An Atlas Based on Estimates from Surface Marine Observations. Climate Research Unit, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 27 pp. and figs.
Fang, Z., and J. M. Wallace, 1994: Arctic sea ice variability on a timescale of weeks and its relation to atmospheric forcing. J. Climate,7, 1897–1914.
Held, I. M., R. L. Panetta, and R. T. Pierrehumbert, 1985: Stationary external Rossby waves in vertical shear. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 865–883.
——, R. T. Pierrehumbert, and R. L. Panetta, 1986: Dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 388–396.
Herman, G. F., and W. T. Johnson, 1978: The sensitivity of the general circulation to Arctic sea ice boundaries: A numerical experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 1649–1664.
Honda, M., Y. Tachibana, and M. Wakatsuchi, 1994: The influences of the sea ice and the wind field on the winter air temperature variation in Hokkaido. Proc. NIPR Symp. Polar Meteor. Glaciol.,8, 81–94.
——, K. Yamazaki, Y. Tachibana, and K. Takeuchi, 1996: Influence of Okhotsk sea-ice extent on atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 3595–3598.
Kano, Y., K. Sato, and S. Shirato, 1989: Statistical study on sea ice in the Okhotsk Sea observed by GMS for 10 years. Oceanogr. Mag.,39, 43–58.
Kodera, K., M. Chiba, H. Koide, A. Kitoh, and Y. Nikaidou, 1996: Interannual variability of the winter stratosphere and troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,74, 365–382.
Louis, J. F., 1979: A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,17, 187–202.
Nagata, M., and M. Ikawa, 1988: Numerical experiments of the convergent cloud band over the Japan Sea (in Japanese). Tenki,35, 151–155.
Niebauer, J., 1980: Sea ice and temperature variability in the eastern Bering Sea and the relation to the atmospheric fluctuations. J. Geophys. Res.,85, 7507–7516.
Oberhuber, J. M., 1988: The budget of heat, buoyancy and turbulent kinetic energy at the surface of the global ocean. Max-Planck Institut für Meteorologie Rep. 15, 19 pp. and figs. [Available from Max-Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstrasse 55, 20147 Hamburg, Germany.].
Okubo, H., and N. Mannoji, 1994: The influence of the sea ice distribution on the surface wind forecast by Japan Spectral Model (in Japanese). Tenki,41, 847–851.
Overland, J. E., and C. H. Pease, 1982: Cyclonic climatology of the Bering and its relation to sea ice extent. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 5–13.
Palmer, T. N., and Z. Sun, 1985: A modelling and observational study of the relationship between sea surface temperature in the north-west Atlantic and the atmospheric general circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,111, 947–975.
Parkinson, C. L., 1990: The impact of the Siberian high and Aleutian low on the sea-ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk. Ann. Glaciol.,14, 226–229.
Peng, S., and J. S. Whitaker, 1999: Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Climate,12, 1393–1408.
——, W. A. Robinson, and M. P. Hoering, 1997: The modeled atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies and its dependence on background circulation states. J. Climate,10, 971–987.
Plumb, R. A., 1985: On the three-dimensional propagation of stationary waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 217–229.
Randall, D., and Coauthors, 1998: Status of and outlook for large-scale modeling of atmosphere–ice–ocean interactions in the Arctic. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,79, 197–219.
Rogers, J. C., 1978: Meteorological factors affecting interannual variability of summertime ice extent in the Beaufort Sea. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 890–897.
Sasaki, H., and S. Deguti, 1988: Numerical experiments of the convergent band formed off the western coast of Hokkaido in winter (in Japanese). Tenki,35, 723–729.
Takaya, K., and H. Nakamura, 1997: A formulation of a wave-activity flux for stationary Rossby waves on a zonally varying basic flow. Geophys. Res. Lett,24, 2985–2988.
Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett,25, 1297–1300.
Walsh, J. E., and C. M. Johnson, 1979: Interannual atmospheric variability and associated fluctuations in Arctic sea ice extent. J. Geophys. Res.,84, 6915–6928.
——, and J. E. Sater, 1981: Monthly and seasonal variability in the ocean-ice-atmosphere systems of the North Pacific and North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,86, 7425–7445.
Zhang, Y., J. M. Wallace, and N. Iwasaka, 1996: Is climate variability over the North Pacific a linear response to ENSO? J. Climate,9, 1468–1478.