The authors appreciate Dr. Charles Woodlock and Ms. Nancy Rich of NASA/Langley Research Center for providing surface albedo data. Discussions with Drs. M. Kanamitsu and Julian Wang, and encouragement from Chet Ropelewski, are also appreciated. Comments from two anonymous reviewer and Mel Gelman are valuable for refining the original manuscripts. This work was supported by NASA/Langley Space Flight Center Grant L90988C.
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