The author is grateful to Steve Lambert for supplying the ECMWF operational analyses and NCEP reanalysis data. Greg Flato, Steve Lambert, and Jian Sheng are also acknowledged for their very useful reviews of the manuscript.
Albignat, J. P., and R. J. Reed, 1980: The origin of African wave disturbances during Phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1827–1839.
Boer, G. J., N. A. McFarlane, and M. Lazare, 1992: Greenhouse gas-induced climate change simulated with the CCC second-generation general circulation model. J. Climate,5, 1045–1077.
Burpee, R. W., 1972: The origin and structure of easterly waves in the lower troposphere of North Africa. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 77–90.
——, 1974: Characteristics of North African easterly waves during the summers of 1968 and 1969. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1556–1570.
Carlson, T. N., 1969a: Synoptic histories of three African disturbances that developed into Atlantic hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 256–276.
——, 1969b: Some remarks on African disturbances and their progress over the tropical Atlantic. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 716–726.
Charney, J. G., and M. E. Stern, 1962: On the stability of internal baroclinic jets in a rotating atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,19, 159–172.
Druyan, L. M., and T. M. Hall, 1994: Studies of African wave disturbances with the GISS GCM. J. Climate,7, 261–276.
ECMWF, 1994: The description of the ECMWF/WCRP level III—A global atmospheric data archive. Technical Attachment, 55 pp.
Estoque, M. A., J. Shulka, and J. C. Jing, 1983: African wave disturbances in a general circulation model. Tellus,35A, 287–295.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 437–490.
Kwon, J. W., and M. Mak, 1990: A study of the structural transformation of the African easterly waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 277–292.
Landsea, C. W., 1993: A climatology of intense (or major) Atlantic hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1703–1713.
Lau, K.-H., and N.-C. Lau, 1990: Observed structure and propagation characteristics of tropical summertime synoptic-scale disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 1888–1913.
Mass, C., 1979: A linear primitive equation model of African wave disturbances. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 2075–2092.
McFarlane, N. A., G. J. Boer, J.-P. Blanchet, and M. Lazare, 1992: The Canadian Climate Centre second-generation general circulation model and its equilibrium climate. J. Climate,5, 1013–1044.
Miyakoda, K., and J. Sirutis, 1977: Comparative integrations of global models with various parameterized processes of subgrid-scale vertical transports: Descriptions of the parameterizations. Beitr. Phys. Atmos.,50, 445–487.
Norquist, D. C., E. E. Recker, and R. J. Reed, 1977: The energetics of African wave disturbances as observed during phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev.,105, 334–342.
Piersig, W., 1944: Reprint. The cyclonic disturbances of the sub-tropical eastern North Atlantic. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,25, 2–17. Original edition, Schwankungen von Luftdruck und Luftbewegung sowie ein Beitrag zum Wettergeschehen in Passatgebiet des ostlichen Nordatlantischen Ozeans. Arch. Deut. Seewarte,54 (6), 2–17.
Reed, R. J., D. C. Norquist, and E. E. Recker, 1977: The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev.,105, 317–333.
——, E. Klinker, and A. Hollingsworth, 1987: An evaluation of the performance of the ECMWF operational forecasting system in analyzing and forecasting tropical easterly wave disturbances. Part II: Spectral investigation. ECMWF Tech. Rep. 60, Reading, United Kingdom, 65 pp.
——, ——, and ——, 1988: The structure and characteristics of African easterly wave disturbances as determined by the ECMWF operational analysis/forecast system. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,38, 22–33.
Regula, H., 1936: Druckschwankungen und Tornados an der Westkuste von Afrika. Ann. Hydrogr. Mar. Meteor.,64, 107–111.
Rennick, M. A., 1976: The generation of African waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 1955–1969.
Simmons, A. J., 1977: A note on the instability of the African easterly jet. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 1670–1674.
Thorncroft, C. D., 1994: An idealized study of African easterly waves. Part II: A non-linear view. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,120, 983–1015.
——, 1995: An idealized study of African easterly waves. Part III: More realistic basic states. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,121, 1589–1614.
——, and B. J. Hoskins, 1994: An idealized study of African easterly waves. Part I: A linear view. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,120, 953–982.
von Storch, H., T. Bruns, I. Fischer-Bruns, and K. Hasselman, 1988: Principal oscillation pattern analysis of the 30- to 60-day oscillation in the tropical atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 11 022–11 036.
——, G. Burger, R. Schnur, and J.-S. von Storch, 1995: Principal oscillation patterns: A review. J. Climate,8, 377–400.