Primary support for this research was provided by NASA/EOS Interdisciplinary Research Programs (NAG53640#1, NAG8-1520, NAGW-2062, U.P.N. 428-81-22, and 429-81-22) and the NOAA GCIP program (NA46GP0247). The senior author, J. M. Jin, would like to thank the World Laboratory, International Centre for Scientific Culture (Switzerland) for selecting him as the first recipient of the John Harshbarger Fellowship. C. A. Schlosser and PILPS central (Australia) provided permission for using the PILPS Phase 2(d) data, Y. Xue and R. F. Harrington gave helpful discussions, and D. K. Braithwaite and J. Broermann provided computer assistance. The careful reading and editing provided by C. Thies improved the manuscript.
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