We thank Dr. B. Keim, Department of Geography, University of New Hampshire, and Dr. S. P. Adhikary, Himalayan Climate Center, Nepal. Thanks are extended to the Central Data Processing Unit, Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Nepal, for providing some data in digital format. We also thank two anonymous reviewers, whose suggestions on the earlier version of the text helped a lot to improve it.
Angell, J. K., and J. Korshover, 1978: Global temperature variation, surface-100 mb: An update into 1977. Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 755–770.
Barnett, T. P., L. Dumenil, U. Schlese, and E. Roeckner, 1988: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on global climate. Science,239, 504–507.
Barry, R. G., 1990: Changes in mountain climate and glacio-hydrological responses. Mt. Res. Dev.,10, 161–170.
Beniston, M., 1994: Introduction. Mountain Environments in Changing Climates, M. Beniston, Ed., Routledge, xxiv–xxxi.
CBS, 1995: Statistical Yearbook of Nepal 1995. Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal, 446 pp.
Dey, B., and O. S. R. U. Bhanu Kumar, 1982: An apparent relationship between Eurasian spring snow cover and the advance period of the Indian summer monsoon. J. Appl. Meteor.,21, 1929–1932.
——, and ——, 1983: Himalayan winter snow cover area and summer monsoon rainfall over India. J. Geophys. Res.,88, 5471–5474.
DHM, 1998: Climatological records of Nepal 1991–1994. Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, HMG-Nepal, 232 pp. [Available from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, P.O. Box 406, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu, Nepal.].
Ekholm, E., 1975: The deterioration of mountain environment. Science,189, 764–770.
EPC, 1993: Nepal environmental policy and action plan. Integrating environment and development. Environment Protection Council, His Majesty’s Government of Nepal, 80 pp. [Available from Environment Protection Council, National Planning Commission, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.].
Follard, C. K., T. R. Karl, and K. Y. Vinnikov, 1990: Observed climate variations and change. Climate Change—The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 195–238.
Fortner, B., 1992: The data handbook. A guide to understanding the organization and visualization of technical data. Spyglass Inc., Champaign, IL, 229 pp.
FRSC, 1994: Deforestation in the Terai districts 1978/79–1990/91. Publication 60, Forest Research and Survey Centre, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 9 pp. [Available from Forest Research and Survey Center, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, P.O. Box 3339, Kathmandu, Nepal.].
Fujita, K., M. Nakawo, Y. Fujii, and P. Paudyal, 1997: Changes in glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mukut Himal, Nepal Himalayas, from 1974 to 1994. J. Glaciol.,43, 583–588.
Gash, J. H. C., and W. J. Shuttleworth, 1991: Tropical deforestation:Albedo and the surface-energy balance. Climate Change,19, 123–133.
Grabs, W. E., and A. P. Pokhrel, 1992: Establishment of measuring service for snow and glacier hydrology in Nepal—Conceptual and operational aspects. Proc. Int. Symp. on Snow and Glacier Hydrology, IAHS Publ. 218, Kathmandu, Nepal, WMO/GTZ/UNESCO/ICIMOD/IAHS, 3-16.
Hansen, J., and S. Lebedeff, 1987: Global trends of measured surface air temperature. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 13 345–13 372.
——, and ——, 1988: Global surface air temperatures: Update through 1987. Geophys. Res. Lett.,15, 323–326.
——, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and R. Reynolds, 1996: Global surface air temperature in 1995: Return to pre-Pinatubo level. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 1665–1668.
Henderson-Sellers, A., and V. Gornitz, 1984: Possible climatic impacts of land cover transformations, with particular emphasis on tropical deforestation. Climate Change,6, 231–257.
Higuchi, K., H. Fushimi, T. Ohata, S. Takenaka, K. Yokoyama, H. Higuchi, A. Nagoshi, and T. Iozawa, 1980: Glacier inventory in the Dudh Kosi region, East Nepal. World glacier inventory. IAHS Publication No. 126, 95–103.
Hingane, L. S., K. R. Kumar, and B. V. R. Murty, 1985: Long term trends of surface air temperature in India. J. Climatol.5, 521–528.
Hrabovsky, J. P., and K. Miyan, 1987: Population growth and land use in Nepal. “The great turnabout.” Mt. Res. Dev.,7, 264–270.
IPCC, 1990: Climate Change—The IPCC Scientific Assessment. J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 2–40.
Jones, P. D., S. C. B. Raper, R. S. Bradley, H. F. Diaz, P. M. Kelly, and T. M. L. Wigley, 1986a: Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851–1984. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,25, 161–179.
——, ——, and T. M. L. Wigley, 1986b: Southern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851–1984. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,25, 1213–1230.
——, T. M. L. Wigley, and P. B. Wright, 1986c: Global temperature variations between 1861 and 1984. Nature,322, 430–434.
Kadota, T., and Y. Ageta, 1992: On the relation between climate and retreat of Glacier AX010 in the Nepal Himalaya from 1978 to 1989. Bull. Glacier Res.,10, 1–10.
——, K. Seko, and Y. Ageta, 1993: Shrinkage of Glacier AX010 since 1978, Shorong Himal, East Nepal. Snow and Glacier Hydrology. IAHS Publication No. 218, 410 pp. [Available from Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, United Kingdom.].
Karan, P. P., 1987: Population characteristics of the Himalayan region. Mt. Res. Dev.,7, 271–274.
Khandekar, M. L., 1991: Eurasian snow cover, Indian monsoon and El Niño. Atmos.–Ocean,29, 636–647.
Kothyari, U. C., and V. P. Shing, 1996: Rainfall and temperature trends in India. Hydrol. Processes,10, 357–372.
Li, C., and M. Tang, 1986: Changes in air temperature in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its neighborhood in the recent 30 years. Plateau Meteor.,5, 332–341.
Mayewski, P. A., and P. A. Jeschke, 1979: Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan glacier fluctuations since AD 1812. Arct. Alp. Res.,11, 267–287.
Meehl, G. A., 1994: Influence of the land surface in the Asian summer monsoon: External conditions versus internal feedbacks. J. Climate,7, 1033–1049.
Meher-Homji, V. M., 1991: Probable impact of deforestation on hydrological processes. Climate Change,19, 163–173.
Miller, M. M., 1989: Comparative accumulation regimes of Himalayan and Alaskan neves and the issue of global warming. Environment and Society in the Manaslu-Ganesh Region of the Central Nepal Himalaya, R. A. Marston, Ed., Foundation for Glacier and Environment Research and University of Idaho, 89–96.
——, and R. A. Marston, 1989: Glacial response to climate change epeirogeny in the Nepalese Himalaya. Environment and Society in the Manaslu-Ganesh Region of the Central Nepal Himalaya, R. A. Marston, Ed., Foundation for Glacier and Environment Research and University of Idaho, 65–88.
Mitchell, J. R. J., 1961: The temperatures of cities. Weatherwise,14, 224–237.
Seko, K., and S. Takahashi, 1991: Characteristics of winter precipitation and its effect on glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya. Bull. Glacier Res.,9, 9–16.
Shankar, K., and P. B. Shrestha, 1985: Climate. Nepal-Nature’s Paradise, T. C. Majupuria, Ed., White Lotus, 39–44.
Sharma, B., 1986: Environmental aspects of urbanization in Kathmandu Valley. International Workshop in Planned Urbanization and Rural-Urban Linkages in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan Region, Kathmandu, Nepal, ICIMOD, 47 pp. [Available from ICIMOD, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal.].
Sinha, S. K., and M. S. Swaminathan, 1991: Deforestation, climate change and sustainable nutrition security: A case study of India. Climate Change,19, 201–209.
Stone, P. B., Ed., 1992: The State of World’s Mountains. Zed Books, 384 pp.
Sundborg, Å., 1951: Local climatological studies of the temperature conditions in an urban area. Geographica,22, 111–115.
Vuichard, D., and M. Zimmermann, 1987: The 1985 catastrophic drainage of a moraine-dammed lake, Khumbu Himal, Nepal: Cause and consequences. Mt. Res. Dev.,7, 91–110.
WECS, 1986: Erosion and sedimentation in Nepal. Rep. 4/3/010587/1/1, Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal, 182 pp. [Available from Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS), Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal.].
WMO, 1966: Climatic change. WMO Tech. Note 79, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 71 pp.
Yamada, T., T. Shiraiwa, H. Iida, T. Kadota, T. Watanabe, B. Rana, Y. Ageta, and H. Fushimi, 1992: Fluctuations of the glaciers from the 1970s to 1989 in the Khumbu, Shorong and Langtang regions, Nepal Himalayas. Bull. Glacier Res.,10, 11–19.