The authors appreciate the continuous encouragement and very helpful comments by Yoshio Kurihara and Jerry Malhman. They also wish to thank Tom Knutson and Morris Bender for their useful discussions and communications during the course of this study. Programming assistance in setting the ocean model from Clark Rowley is appreciated. This work was supported in part by the Risk Prediction Initiative Program under the auspices of the Atlantic Global Change program. Computer resources were supplied by the GFDL computer facilities.
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