This research was funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We greatly appreciate the help given to us by Stephen Gill of NOAA/NOS in making available, and interpreting, hourly water level data.
Aubrey, D. G., and K. O. Emery, 1986: Relative sea levels of Japan tide-gauge records. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.,97, 194–205.
Bacon, S., and D. J. T. Carter, 1991: Wave climate changes in the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Int. J. Climatol.,11, 545–558.
Bouws, E., D. Jannink, and G. J. Komen, 1996: The increasing wave height in the North Atlantic Ocean. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 2275–2277.
Carter, R. W. G., 1988: Coastal Environments. Academic Press, 617 pp.
Carter, D. J. T., and L. Draper, 1988: Has the northeast Atlantic become rougher? Nature,332, 494.
Cartwright, D. E., and R. J. Taylor, 1973: New computations of tide-generating potential. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc.,23, 45–74.
Davis, R. E., R. Dolan, and G. Demme, 1993: Synoptic climatology of Atlantic coast northeasters. Int. J. Climatol.,13, 171–189.
Dolan, R., and R. E. Davis, 1992: An intensity scale for Atlantic Coast northeast storms. J. Coastal Res.,8, 352–364.
——, and ——, 1994: Coastal storm hazards. J. Coastal Res.,12 (Special issue), 103–114.
Douglas, B. C., 1991: Global sea level rise. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 6981–6992.
El-Ashry, M. T., 1971: Cause of recent increased erosion along United States shorelines. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull.,82, 2033–2038.
Emanuel, K. A., 1987: The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nature,326, 483–485.
Emery, K. O., and D. G. Aubrey, 1991: Sea Levels, Land Levels, and Tide Gauges. Springer-Verlag, 237 pp.
Fenster, M. S., and R. Dolan, 1994: Large-scale reversals in shoreline trend along U.S. Mid-Atlantic Coast. Geology,22, 543–546.
Friedlander, S. C., S. E. Jackson, J. S. Lansdale, J. R. Mather, D. A. Murray, P. M. Rees, E. A. Schellhardt, and F. J. Swave, 1977: Coastal storm damage 1923–1974. Tech. Rep. 4, Office of Management, Budget and Planning, Dover, DE, 442 pp.
Gorman, L. T., and D. W. Reed, 1989: Shoreline response of northern New Jersey barrier system. Barrier Islands: Process and Management, D. Stauble, Ed., American Society of Civil Engineers, 122–136.
Harris, D. L., 1958: Meteorological aspects of storm surge generation. J. Hydraul. Div., Amer. Soc. Civ. Eng.,84 (HY7), 1–25.
——, 1991: Reproducibility of the harmonic constants. Tidal Hydrodynamics, B. P. Parker, Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 753–771.
Hayden, B. P., 1975: Storm wave climates at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina: Recent secular variations. Science,190, 981–982.
——, 1981: Secular variation in Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 159–167.
Hebert, P. J., and G. Taylor, 1975: Hurricane experience levels of coastal county populations from Texas to Maine. National Hurricane Center, 153 pp.
Idso, S. B., R. C. Balling Jr., and R. S. Cerveny, 1990: Carbon dioxide and hurricanes: Implications of Northern Hemispheric warming for Atlantic/Caribbean storms. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,42, 259–263.
Knuston, T. R., R. E. Tuleya, and Y. Kurihara, 1998: Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science,279, 1018–1020.
Kutzbatch, J. E., 1967: Empirical eigenvectors of sea-level pressure, surface temperature and precipitation complexes over North America. J. Appl. Meteor.,6, 791–802.
Landsea, C. W., 1993: A climatology of intense (or major) Atlantic hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 1703–1713.
Leatherman, S. P., 1982: Barrier Island Handbook. University of Maryland, 109 pp.
Mason, O. K., D. K. Salmon, and S. L. Ludwig, 1996: The periodicity of storm surges in the Bering Sea from 1898 to 1993, based on newspaper accounts. Climatic Change,34, 109–123.
Mather, J. R., H. Adams III, and G. A. Yoshioka, 1964: Coastal storms of the eastern United States. J. Appl. Meteor.,3, 693–706.
——, R. T. Field, and G. A. Yoshioka, 1967: Storm damage hazard along the east coast of the United States. J. Appl. Meteor.,6, 20–30.
Murty, T. S., 1984: Storm Surges—Meteorological Ocean Tides. No. 212, Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 897 pp.
National Weather Service, 1992: Hurricane Andrew, South Florida and Louisiana August 23–26, 1992. National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD, 131 pp.
Neumann, C. J., B. R. Jarvinen, C. J. McAdie, and J. D. Elms, 1993:Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871–1992. NOAA, Silver Spring, MD, 193 pp.
Pore, N. A., 1961: The storm surge. Mar. Wea. Log,5, 151–156.
Pugh, D. T., 1987: Tides, Surges and Mean Sea-Level. John Wiley and Sons, 472 pp.
——, and J. M. Vassie, 1978: Extreme sea levels from tide and surge probability. Proc. 16th Conf. of Coastal Engineering, Hamburg, Germany, American Society of Civil Engineers, 911–932.
Redfield, A. C., and A. R. Miller, 1957: Water levels accompanying Atlantic coast hurricanes. Interaction of Sea and Atmosphere: A Group of Contributions, Meteor. Monogr., No. 10, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–23.
Resio, D. T., and B. P. Hayden, 1975: Recent secular variations in mid-Atlantic winter extratropical storm climate. J. Appl. Meteor.,14, 1223–1234.
Rice, J. A., 1988: Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis. Wadsworth and Brooks, 612 pp.
Rossiter, J. R., 1961: Interaction between tide and surges in the Thames. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc.,6, 29–53.
Savadove, L., and M. T. Buchholz, 1993: Great Storms of the Jersey Shore. Down The Shore Publishing, 203 pp.
Tancreto, A. E., 1958: A method for forecasting the maximum surge at Boston due to extratropical storms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,86, 197–200.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1984: Shore protection manual. Coastal Engineering Research Center. [Available from Coastal Engineering Research Center, Dept. of the Army, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, P.O. Box 631, Vicksburg, MS 39180.].
Zhang, K., 1998: Twentieth century storm activity and sea level rise along the U.S. East Coast and their impact on shoreline position. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland at College Park, 266 pp. [Available from McKeldin Library, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742.].
——, B. C. Douglas, and S. P. Leatherman, 1997: East Coast storm surges provide unique climate record. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union,78, 395–397.