This research was supported by the Environmental Science Division, DOE, under Grants DE-FG03-94ER61769 and DE-FG03-94ER61747. The ISCCP data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center. The ECR data were provided by Joel Norris of the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
Allis, R. J., and S. Raman, 1995: Diurnal variations in cloud frequency of the Gulf Stream locale. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 1578–1594.
Clothiaux, E. E., G. G. Mace, T. P. Ackerman, T. J. Kane, J. D. Spinhirne, and V. S. Scott, 1998: An automated algorithm for detection of hydrometeor returns in micropulse lidar data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 1035–1042.
Hahn, C. J., S. G. Warren, and J. London, 1994: Edited synoptic cloud reports from ships and land stations over the globe, 1982–1991. Tech. Rep. NDP-026B, 47 pp. [Available from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335.].
Heymsfield, J. A., L. M. Miloshevich, A. Slingo, K. Sassen, and D. O’C. Starr, 1991: An observational and theoretical study of highly supercooled altocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 923–945.
Hughes, N. A., 1984: Global cloud climatologies: A historical review. J. Appl. Climatol.,23, 724–751.
Jin, Y., W. B. Rossow, and D. P. Wylie, 1996: Comparison of the climatologies of high-level clouds from HIRS and ISCCP. J. Climate,9, 2850–2879.
Johnson, H. L., and C. E. Duchon, 1995: Atlas of Oklahoma Climate. University of Oklahoma Press, 152 pp.
Liu, S., and S. K. Krueger, 1997: Effects of radiation in simulated altocumulus cloud layers. Preprints, Ninth Conf. on Atmospheric Radiation, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 330–334.
McClave, J. T., and F. H. Dietrich, 1982: Statistics. Dellen Publishing, 766 pp.
Moran, K. P., E. M., Brooks, M. J. Post, R. A. Kropfli, D. C. Welsh, and K. B. Widener, 1998: An unattended cloud-profiling radar for use in climate research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,79, 443–455.
Newell, R. G., J. W. Kidson, D. G. Vincent, and G. J. Boer, 1970: The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extratropical Latitudes. Vols. 1 and 2. The MIT Press, 651 pp.
Rossow, W. B., and A. W. Walker, 1991: International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) documentation of cloud data (Stage C2). WMO Tech. Doc. 266, World Meteorological Organization, 78 pp and 3 appendixes.
——, and R. A. Schiffer, 1991: ISCCP cloud data products. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,72, 2–20.
——, and L. C. Garder, 1993: Validation of ISCCP cloud detections. J. Climate,6, 2370–2392.
——, and Coauthors, 1985: ISCCP Cloud Algorithm Intercomparison. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,24, 877–903.
Rozendaal, M. A., C. B. Leovy, and S. A. Klein, 1995: An observational study of diurnal variations of marine stratiform cloud. J. Climate,8, 1795–1809.
Short, D. A., and J. M. Wallace, 1980: Satellite-inferred morning-to-evening cloudiness changes. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1160–1169.
Spinhirne, J. D., 1993: Micro pulse lidar. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,31, 48–55.
Stokes, G. M., and S. E. Schwartz, 1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 1201–1221.
Tian, L., and J. A. Curry, 1989: Cloud overlap statistics. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 9925–9935.
van Loon, H., 1972: Cloudiness and precipitation in the Southern Hemisphere. Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere, Meteor. Monogr., No. 13, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101–104.
Warren, S. G., C. J. Hahn, J. London, R. M. Chervin, and R. L. Jenne, 1988: Global distribution of total cloud cover and cloud type amounts over land. NCAR Tech. Note TN-273+STR, Boulder, CO, 29 pp. and 200 maps.
World Meteorological Organization, 1988: Manual on codes. Vol. 1. WMO Publ. No. 306, WMO, Geneva.