The authors would thank Drs. N. A. McFarlane and J. Scinoca and anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
Bohren, C. F., and D. R. Huffman, 1983: Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. Wiley, 536 pp.
Chýlek, P., and V. Ramaswamy, 1982: Simple approximation for infrared emissivity of water clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 171–177.
——, P. Damiano, and E. P. Shettle, 1992: Infrared emittance of water clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1459–1472.
Dobbie, J. S., J. Li, and P. Chýlek, 1999: Two and four stream optical properties for water clouds and solar wavelengths. J. Geophys. Res.,104, 2067–2079.
Downing, H. D., and D. Williams, 1975: Optical constants of water in the infrared. J. Geophys. Res.,80, 1656–1661.
Edwards, J. M., and A. Slingo, 1996: Studies with a flexible new radiation code. I: Choosing a configuration for a large-scale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,122, 689–719.
Fu, Q., P. Yang, and W. B. Sun, 1998: An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models J. Climate,11, 2223–2237.
Hale, G., and M. Querry, 1984: Optical constants of water in the 200 nm to 200 μm wavelength region. Appl. Opt.,23, 1206–1225.
Hu, Y., and K. Stamnes, 1993: An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models. J. Climate,6, 728–742.
Kou, L., D. Labrie, and P. Chýlek, 1993: Refractive indices of water and ice in the 0.65–2.5μm spectral range. Appl. Opt.,32, 3531–3540.
Li, J., and Q. Fu, 2000: Absorption approximation with scattering effect for infrared radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.
——, S. M. Freidenreich, and V. Ramaswamy, 1997: Solar spectral weight at low cloud tops. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 11 139–11 143.
Liou, K.-N., 1992: Radiative Transfer and Cloud Process in the Atmosphere. Oxford University Press, 478 pp.
Press, W. H., S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling and B. P. Flannery, 1992: Numerical Recipies in Fortran 77. Cambridge University Press, 933 pp.