The author wishes to thank Dr. Kevin E. Trenberth at NCAR for providing the data on atmospheric energy transport. His encouragement and advice in this research is invaluable. The research also benefited from discussions with Dr. Klaus Weickmann at CDC. The author gratefully acknowledges the very helpful comments from two anonymous reviewers and the editorial efforts of Dr. Neville Nicholls. The author also thanks Mr. Andres Roubicek for helping to prepare some of the figures. The research was supported by NOAA.
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