This work benefited from discussions with Niklas Schneider of Scripps. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Department of Energy’s CHAMMP Program (DE-FG03-91-ER61215), the National Science Foundation (NSF ATM-93-14495), the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, and the European Union’s SYNTEX Programme. The simulations were executed at NCAR’s Climate Simulation Laboratory (CSL) by J. Ritchie; we especially appreciate the help provided by CSL personnel.
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