We would like to express our special thanks to Dr. J. M. Wallace for his careful reading of the earlier version of this paper and giving us a number of comments that led to the substantial improvement of this paper. Particularly, discussion with him was very helpful in interpreting the relationship between the AL–IL seesaw and the Arctic oscillation (or annular mode). We also thank the two anonymous referees whose sound criticism and suggestions also contributed to the improvement. Our thanks are extended to Drs. J. Ukita, K. Kodera, Y. Tanimoto, S. Yamane, M. Watanabe, and U. Bhatt for their useful comments and encouragement. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was used for drawing the figures.
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