We thank Eric Pyne, Max König, Ian Moore, and Isa Woo for their assistance in the field. Carla D’Antonio, Pam Matson, Brian Taras, and Charles Collins provided helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript; two anonymous reviewers helped sharpen the focus of the paper. This research was supported by the Arctic System Science program, Office of Polar Programs, U.S. National Science Foundation (OPP Grants 94-15386 and 93-18532). J.P.M. gratefully acknowledges a NASA Earth System Science Fellowship.
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