The research described in this paper was carried out, in part, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under contract with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support from the JPL Director’s Research and Development Fund is acknowledged. We’d like to thank Dr. Clara Deser and Michael S. Timlin for providing us the XBTs data used in Fig. 14, the TAO project office and Margie McCarty at NOAA PMEL for providing the observed current data used in Fig. 7, and Arlindo M. da Silva at Goddard Space Flight Center for providing the COADS data. Computations were performed on the Cray J90 through the JPL Supercomputing Project.
Ayotte, K. W., and Coauthors, 1996: An evaluation of neutral and convective planetary boundary-layer parameterizations relative to large eddy simulations. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,79, 131–175.
Barnier, B., L. Siefridt, and P. Marchesiello, 1995: Thermal forcing for a global ocean circulation model using a 3-year climatology of ECMWF analysis. J. Mar. Sci.,6, 363–380.
Blanke, B., and P. Delecluse, 1993: Variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean simulated by a general circulation model with two different mixed-layer physics. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 1363–1388.
Bryan, K., 1969: A numerical method for the study of the world ocean. J. Comput. Phys.,4, 347–376.
——, and L. J. Lewis, 1979: A water mass model of the world ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,84, 2503–2514.
Chao, Y., and S. G. H. Philander, 1993: On the structure of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate,6, 450–469.
Chen, D., L. M. Rothstein, and A. J. Busalacchi, 1994: A hybrid vertical mixing scheme and its application to tropical ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,24, 2157–2179.
Cox, M. D., 1984: A primitive equation, 3-dimensional model of the ocean. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 1, 143 pp. [Available from GFDL, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542.].
Crawford, W. R., and T. R. Osborn, 1979: Microstructure measurements in the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent during GATE. Deep-Sea Res.,26 (Suppl. II), 285–308.
da Silva, A. M., C. C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data 1994. Vol. 1, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 83 pp.
Deser, C., M. A. Alexander, and M. S. Timlin, 1996: Upper ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970–1991. J. Climate,9, 1840–1855.
Garwood, R. W., 1977: An oceanic mixed layer model capable of simulating cyclic states. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,7, 455–467.
Gent, P. R., and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 150–155.
——, F. O. Bryan, G. Danabasoglu, S. C. Doney, W. R. Holland, W. G. Large, and J. C. McWilliams, 1998: The NCAR Climate System Model global ocean component. J. Climate,11, 1287–1306.
Gnanadesikan, A., and R. A. Weller, 1995: Structure and instability of the Ekman spiral in the presence of surface gravity waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 3148–3171.
Haidvogel, D. B., and A. Beckmann, 1999: Numerical Ocean Circulation Modeling. Imperial College Press, 318 pp.
Halpern, D., Y. Chao, C. C. Ma, and C. R. Mechoso, 1995: Comparison of tropical Pacific temperature and current simulations with two vertical mixing schemes embedded in an ocean general circulation model and reference to observations. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 2515–2523.
Högström, U., 1988: Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,42, 55–78.
Holtslag, A. A., and B. A. Boville, 1993: Local versus nonlocal boundary-layer diffusion in a global climate model. J. Climate,6, 1825–1842.
Kantha, L. H., and C. A. Clayson, 1994: An improved mixed layer model for geophysical applications. J. Geophys. Res.,99 (C12), 25 235–25 266.
Kraus, E. B., and J. S. Turner, 1967: A one-dimensional model of the seasonal thermocline. II: The general theory and its consequences. Tellus,19, 98–105.
Large, W. G., and S. Pond, 1981: Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 324–336.
——, and P. R. Gent, 1999: Validation of vertical mixing in an equatorial ocean model using large eddy simulations and observations. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,29, 449–464.
——, J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys.,32, 363–403.
——, G. Danabasoglu, S. C. Doney, and J. C. McWilliams, 1997: Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary layer mixing in a global ocean model: Annual-mean climatology. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 2418–2447.
Levitus, S., and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Temperature. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 117 pp.
——, R. Burgett, and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Salinity. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 99 pp.
Lukas, R., and E. Lindstrom, 1991: The mixed layer of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,96 (Suppl.), 3343–3357.
Mailhôt, J., and R. Benoit, 1982: A finite-element model of the atmospheric boundary layer suitable for use with numerical weather prediction models. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 2249–2266.
Mantua, J. N., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 1069–1080.
McWilliams, J. C., P. P. Sullivan, and C. H. Moeng, 1997: Langmiur turbulence in the ocean. J. Fluid Mech.,334, 1–30.
Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys.,20, 851–872.
Nakamura, H., G. Lin, and T. Yamagata, 1997: Decadal climate variability in the North Pacific during recent decades. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 2215–2225.
Niiler, P. P., and Coauthors, 1995: Comparison of TOGA tropical Pacific Ocean model simulations with the WOCE/TOGA surface velocity programme drifter data set. World Climate Research Programme Rep. WCRP-1995, 156 pp. [Available from Pearn Niiler, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093.].
O’Brien, J. J., 1970: A note on the vertical structure of the eddy exchange coefficient in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,27, 1213–1215.
Osborn, T. R., and L. E. Bilodeau, 1980: Temperature microstructure in the equatorial Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,10, 66–82.
Pacanowski, R., and S. G. H. Philander, 1981: Parameterization of vertical mixing in numerical models of tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,11, 1443–1451.
——, K. Dixon, and A. Rosati, 1991: The GFDL modular ocean model user guide. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 2, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 16 pp. [Available from GFDL, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542.].
Paulson, C. A., and J. J. Simpson, 1977: Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,7, 952–967.
Peters, H., M. C. Gregg, and J. M. Toole, 1988: On the parameterization of equatorial turbulence. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 1199–1211.
Philander, S. G. H., W. Hurlin, and A. D. Seigel, 1987: A model of the seasonal cycle in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,17, 1986–2002.
Price, J. F., R. A. Weller, and R. Pinkel, 1986: Diurnal cycling: Observations and models of the upper ocean response to diurnal heating, cooling and wind mixing. J. Geophys. Res.,91, 8411–8427.
Robinson, A. R., 1966: An investigation into the wind as the cause of the Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Mar. Res.,24, 179–191.
Rosati, A., and K. Miyakoda, 1988: A general circulation model for upper ocean simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,18, 1601–1622.
Sarmiento, J. L., and K. Bryan, 1982: An ocean transport model for the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res.,87, 394–403.
Stammer, D., R. Tokmakian, A. Semtner, and C. Wunsch, 1996: How well does a 1/4 global circulation model simulate large-scale oceanic observations? J. Geophys. Res.,101, 25 779–25 801.
Stockdale, T., D. Anderson, M. Davey, P. Delecluse, A. Kattenberg, Y. Kitamura, M. Latif, and T. Yamagata, 1993: Intercomparison of tropical ocean GCMS. Report WCRP-79, WMO/TD 545, World Meteorological Organization, 18–21.
Yu, X., and M. J. McPhaden, 1999: Seasonal variability in the equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,29, 925–947.
Yu, Z., and P. S. Schopf, 1997: Vertical eddy mixing in the tropical upper ocean: Its influence on zonal currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 1447–1458.
Zhang, R.-H., and S. Levitus, 1997: Structure and cycle of decadal variability of upper ocean temperature in the North Pacific. J. Climate,10, 710–727.