We thank Dr. P. J. Rasch, Dr. W. D. Collins, Mr. B. Eaton at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Dr. T. N. Krishnamurti at Florida State University, and Dr. G. J. Huffman at Goddard Space Flight Center for their assistance on the needed data. We sincerely thank two anonymous reviewers for their thorough reviews and helpful comments. We also want to express our deep gratitude to Dr. K. E. Trenberth for taking time to read the manuscript and pointing out a major inconsistency in an earlier version of this paper. Incorporation of his suggested correction to our analysis significantly improved the accuracy of our estimate. This research was supported by the Environmental Science Division of U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DEFG 0391 ER 61198 as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and by the National Science Foundation under Grants ATM9405024 and ATM9525800. This paper is Report 218 of the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4).
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