This work benefited from talks with Tim Barnett, Niklas Schneider, and Alexander Gershunov of Scripps, which are gratefully acknowledged. Alexander Gershunov also provided the data that enabled the inclusion of Fig. 2. This work was supported by the Department of Energy's CCPP Program (DE-FG03-91-ER61215). The computations were performed at NCAR's Climate Simulation Laboratory and the high performance computing facility at NERSC.
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