This work is supported by JISAO under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA67RJ0155, (OAR HQ and OGP) through UW/PMEL Hayes Center, and by NASA's Physical Oceanography Program. TMI data are produced by Remote Sensing Systems and sponsored, in part, by NASA's Earth Science Information Partnerships, and by the NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Program for early EOS products, principal investigator: Frank Wentz. Analysis and graphics done using freeware package Ferret (http://ferret.wrc.noaa.gov/). Helpful comments from M. Wallace, J. Callahan, A. Chiodi, and S. Ilcane.
Alapathy, K., S. Raman, U. C. Mohanty, and R. V. Mandala, 1995: Sensitivity of monsoon circulations to changes in sea surface temperatures. Atmos. Environ., 29 , 2139–2155.
Battisti, D. S., and A. C. Hirst, 1989: Interannual variability in the tropical atmosphere/ocean system: Influence of basic state, ocean geometry and nonlinearity. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 1687–1712.
Chandrasekar, A., and A. Kitoh, 1998: Impact of localized sea surface temperature anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the Indian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 76 , 841–853.
Chelton, D., and Coauthors. 2001: Observations of coupling between surface wind stress and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 14 , 1479–1498.
Donguy, J. R., and C. Hénin, 1980: Climatic teleconnections in the western South Pacific with El Niño phenomenon. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10 , 1952–1958.
ECMWF, 1989: The description of the ECMW/WCRP level III—A global atmospheric data archive. Tech. Attachment, 72 pp. [Available from ECMWF, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, United Kingdom.].
Hareesh Kumar, P. V., C. V. K. Prasada Rao, J. Swain, and P. Madhusoodanan, 2001: Intra-seasonal oscillations in the central Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon 1999. Curr. Sci., 80 , 786–790.
Harrison, D. E., and N. K. Larkin, 1996: The COADS sea level pressure signal: A near-global El Niño composite and time series view, 1946–1993. J. Climate, 9 , 3025–3055.
JASMINE, 2000: An overview of the Joint Air–Sea Monsoon Interaction Experiment (JASMINE). Tech. Report, 44 pp. [Available online at http://paos.colorado.edu/∼webster/jasminereport/.].
Krishnamurti, T. N., and H. H. Bhalme, 1976: Oscillations of a monsoon system. Part I: Obsevational aspects. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 1937–1954.
Krishnamurti, T. N., D. K. Oosterhof, and A. V. Mehta, 1988: Air–sea interactions on the time scale of 30 to 50 days. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 1304–1322.
Kummerow, C., and Coauthors. 2000: The status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 1965–1982.
Lindzen, R. S., and S. Nigam, 1987: On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 2418–2436.
Maloney, E. D., and D. L. Hartmann, 1998: Frictional moisture convergence in a composite life cycle of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11 , 2387–2403.
Nicholls, N., and A. Kariko, 1993: East Australian rainfall events: Interannual variations, trends and relationships to the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 6 , 1141–1152.
Premkumar, K., M. Ravichandran, S. R. Kalsi, D. Sengupta, and S. Gadgil, 2000: First results from a new observational system over the Indian seas. Curr. Sci., 78 , 323–330.
Ramamurthy, K., 1969: Some aspects of the break in Indian southwest monsoon during July and August. India Meteorological Department Forecasting Manual No. IV-18.3, Poona, India, 57 pp.
Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, and T. Yamagata, 1999: A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401 , 360–363.
Senan, R., D. S. Anith, and D. Sengupta, 2001: Validation of SST and windspeed from TRMM using North Indian Ocean moored buoy observations. Indian Institute of Science Tech. Memo. CAOS Rep. 2001 AS1, Bangalore, India, 29 pp.
Sengupta, D., and M. Ravichandran, 2001: Oscillations of Bay of Bengal sea surface temperature during the 1998 summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 2033–2036.
Shinoda, T., H. H. Hendon, and J. Glick, 1998: Intraseasonal variability of surface fluxes and sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Climate, 11 , 1685–1702.
Sikka, D. R., and S. Gadgil, 1980: On the maximum cloud zone and the ITCZ over Indian longitudes during the southwest monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 1840–1853.
Vecchi, G. A., and D. E. Harrison, 2000: Tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies, El Niño, and equatorial westerly wind events. J. Climate, 13 , 1814–1830.
Wallace, J. M., T. P. Mitchell, and C. Desser, 1989: The influence of sea surface temperature on surface wind in the eastern equatorial Pacific: Seasonal and interannual variability. J. Climate, 2 , 1492–1499.
Wang, B., and X. Xie, 1998: Couple modes of the warm pool climate system. Part I: The role of air–sea interaction in maintaining the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11 , 2116–2135.
Webster, P. J., V. O. Magaña, T. N. Palmer, J. Shukla, R. A. Tomas, M. Yanai, and T. Yasunari, 1998: Monsoons: Processes, predictability and prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res., 103 ((C7),) 14451–14510.
Webster, P. J., A. M. Moore, J. P. Loschnigg, and R. R. Leben, 1999: Couple ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–8. Nature, 401 , 356–360.
Wentz, F. J., 1998: Algorithm theoretical basis document: AMSR Ocean Algorithm. Remote Sensing Systems Tech Rep. 110398, Santa Rosa, CA, 65 pp.
Woodruff, S. D., R. J. Slutz, R. L. Jenne, and P. M. Steurer, 1987: A comprehensive ocean–atmosphere data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68 , 1239–1250.
Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1996: Analyses of global monthly precipitation using gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model predictions. J. Climate, 9 , 840–858.
Yamazaki, K., 1988: Influence of sea surface temperature anomalies over the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean on the tropical atmospheric circulation—A numerical experiment. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66 , 797–806.
Yasunari, T., 1979: Cloudiness fluctuations associated with the Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 57 , 227–242.