We thank David Hassell and Richard Jones at the Hadley Centre, United Kingdom, for the global data from the HadCM2 climate runs, and John D. Farrara, Sungjoon Koo, and Susan Kemball-Cook for careful reviews and comments. This work was supported by the LBNL-DOE (LDRD-366139), NASA-EOS/IDS (NAG5-11363), NASA-RESAC (NS7291), the Electric Power Research Institute and by NSF (ATM-9909650). Work for the U.S. Dept. of Energy was done under Contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.
Arritt, R. W., , D. C. Goering, , and C. J. Anderson, 2000: The North American monsoon system in the Hadley Centre coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 565–568.
Cayan, D. R., , L. G. Riddle, , and E. Aguado, 1993: The influence of precipitation and temperature on seasonal streamflow in California. Water Resour. Res., 29 , 1127–1140.
Chen, T., , J. Chen, , and C. Wikle, 1996: Interdecadal variation in U.S. Pacific coast precipitation over the past four decades. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 1197–1205.
Cho, H-R., , M. Niewiadomski, , and J. Iribarne, 1989: A model of the effect of cumulus clouds on the redistribution and transformation of pollutants. J. Geophys. Res., 94 ((D10),) 12895–12910.
Christensen, O. B., , J. H. Christensen, , B. Machenhauer, , and M. Botzet, 1998: Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia—Present climate. J. Climate, 11 , 3204–3229.
Chung, J-S., , J. Kim, , J-H. Oh, , and W-T. Kwon, 1998: Effects of ice-phase physics in simulating grid-scale precipitation. Korean J. Atmos. Sci., 1 , 94–103.
Dettinger, M. D., , and D. R. Cayan, 1995: Large-scale atmospheric forcing of recent trends toward early snowmelt runoff in California. J. Climate, 8 , 606–623.
Elliott, W. P., , R. J. Ross, , and D. J. Gaffen, 1995: Water vapor trends over North America. Preprints, Sixth Symp. on Global Change Studies, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 185–186.
Giorgi, F., , and G. T. Bates, 1989: The climatological skill of a regional model over complex terrain. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 2325–2347.
Giorgi, F., , and C. Shields, 1999: Tests of precipitation parameterizations available in latest version of NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over continental United States. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 6353–6375.
Giorgi, F., , G. T. Bates, , and S. Nieman, 1993: The multiyear surface climatology of a regional atmospheric model over the western United States. J. Climate, 6 , 75–95.
Giorgi, F., , C. S. Brodeur, , and G. T. Bates, 1994: Regional climate change scenarios over the United States produced with a nested regional climate model: Spatial and seasonal characteristics. J. Climate, 7 , 375–399.
Giorgi, F., , J. W. Hurrell, , M. R. Marinucci, , and M. Beniston, 1997: Elevation dependency of the surface climate signal: A model study. J. Climate, 10 , 288–296.
Goodridge, J. D., 1994: A study of 1000 year storms in California. Predicting Heavy Rainfall Events in California: A Symposium to Share Weather Pattern Knowledge, Rocklin, CA, Sierra College, 142 pp.
Groisman, P. Ya, , R. W. Knight, , and T. R. Karl, 2001: Heavy precipitation and high stream flow in the contiguous United States: Trends in the twentieth century. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 219–246.
Gutman, G., , and A. Ignatov, 1998: Derivation of green vegetation fraction from NOAA/AVHRR for use in numerical weather prediction models. Int. J. Remote Sens, 19 , 1533–1543.
Harshvardhan, R. Davis, , D. A. Randall, , and T. Corsetti, 1987: A fast radiation parameterization scheme for atmospheric circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 92 ((D1),) 1009–1016.
Hong, S-Y., , and H-L. Pan, 1998: Convective trigger function for a mass flux cumulus parameterization scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2599–2620.
Houghton, J. T., , L. G. Meira Flho, , B. A. Callandar, , N. Harris, , A. Kattenberg, , and K. Maskell, Eds.,. . 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 572 pp.
Johns, T. C., , R. E. Carnell, , J. F. Crossley, , J. M. Gregory, , J. F. B. Mitchell, , C. A. Senior, , S. F. B. Tett, , and R. A. Wood, 1997: The second Hadley Centre coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM: Model description, spinup and validation. Climate Dyn., 13 , 103–134.
Kim, J., 1997: Precipitation and snow budget over the southwestern United States during the 1994–1995 winter season in a mesoscale model simulation. Water Resour. Res., 33 , 2831–2839.
Kim, J., . 2001: A nested modeling study of elevation-dependent climate change signals in California induced by increased atmospheric CO2. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 2951–2954.
Kim, J., , and M. Ek, 1995: A simulation of the surface energy budget and soil water content over the HAPEX/MOBILHY forest site. J. Geophy. Res., 100 ((D10),) 20845–20854.
Kim, J., , and S. Soong, 1996: Simulation of a precipitation event in the western United States. Regional Impacts of Global Climate Change: Assessing Change and Response at the Scales that Matter, S. J. Ghan et al., Eds., Batelle, 73–84.
Kim, J., , N. Miller, , A. K. Guetter, , and K. P. Georgakakos, 1998: River flow response to precipitation and snow budget in California during the 1994/95 winter. J. Climate, 11 , 2376–2386.
Kim, J., , J. Farrara, , and S. Hong, 2000: A season precipitation and streamflow hindcast and prediction study in the western United States during the 1997/98 winter season using a dynamic downscaling system. J. Hydrometeor., 1 , 311–329.
Kyriakidis, P. C., , J. Kim, , and N. Miller, 2001: Geostatistical mapping of precipitation using atmospheric and terrain characteristics. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 1855–1877.
Leung, L. R., , and S. J. Ghan, 1999a: Pacific Northwest climate sensitivity simulated by a regional climate model driven by a GCM. Part I: Control simulations. J. Climate, 12 , 2010–2030.
Leung, L. R., . 1999b: Pacific Northwest climate sensitivity simulated by a regional climate model driven by a GCM. Part II: 2×CO2 simulations. J. Climate, 12 , 2031–2053.
Miller, N., , and J. Kim, 1996: Numerical prediction of precipitation and river flow over the Russian River watershed during the January 1995 California storms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 101–105.
Mitchell, J., , T. Jones, , J. Gregory, , and S. Tett, 1995: Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols. Nature, 376 , 501–504.
Pan, H., , and L. Mahrt, 1987: Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary layer development. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 38 , 185–202.
Pan, H., , and W. Wu, 1995: Implementing a mass flux convection parameterization package for the NCEP medium-range forecast model. NMC Office Note, 40 pp. [Available from NCEP/EMC, 5200 Auth Rd., Camp Springs, MD 20746.].
Santer, B. D., and Coauthors. 1995: Detection of climate change and attribution of causes. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 407–443.
Takacs, L., 1985: A two-step scheme for the advection equation with minimized dissipation and dispersion errors. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113 , 1050–1065.
Wilby, R. L., , T. M. L. Wigley, , D. Conway, , P. D. Jones, , B. C. Hewiston, , J. Main, , and D. S. Wilks, 1998: Statistical downscaling of general circulation model output: A comparison of methods. Water Resour. Res., 34 , 2995–3008.