This work benefited from discussions with John Chiang, Richard Seager, Brian Soden, and Mike Wallace. Dan Shaevitz provided programming assistance. Comments by three anonymous reviewers helped us to shorten and clarify the paper. AHS acknowledges financial support from NSF Grant ATM-0096195, NASA Grant NAG5-10607, and a Fellowship from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation; CSB acknowledges support from NASA Grant NAG5-6101.
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